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Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] ~200.194.249.126 about 2 months ago
Communism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Communism (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Communalism or Communitarianism. Part of a series on Communism Concepts [hide] Anti-capitalism Class conflict Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Commune Commune (model of government) Communist society Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Market abolitionism Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World communism World revolution Aspects [hide] Communist party List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist parties Communist revolution Communist state Communist symbolism History of communism Variants [hide] Anarchist Marxism Leninist Libertarian Pre-Marxist Utopian Primitive Religious Christian Internationals [hide] Communist League First International Second International Third International Fourth International People [hide] More Campanella Babeuf Owen Weitling Marx Engels Reclus Kropotkin Malatesta Luxemburg Zetkin Liebknecht Lenin Berkman Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Trotsky Makhno Kollontai Gramsci Stalin Durruti Pannekoek Pankhurst Reich Togliatti Ho Mao Tito Camus Marcuse Sartre Hoxha Beauvoir Guevara Pasolini Kim Berlinguer Castoriadis Debord Bookchin Castro Marcos By region [hide] Colombia France India Kerala Korea Nepal Peru Philippines Poland Russia Sumatra Vietnam Anthem [hide] "The Internationale" Related topics [hide] Anarchism Social Anti-communism Anti anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Capitalism Communitarianism Crimes against humanity under communist regimes (Mass killings) Critical theory Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics Old Left New Left Marx's theory of alienation National communism Romania Red Scare Revolution Social democracy Socialism Democratic Libertarian Revolutionary Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Trade union War communism Worker cooperative Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg Communism portal vte Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] History Main article: History of communism Early communism See also: Religious communism, Scientific socialism, and Utopian socialism According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece.[26] The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy; for criticizing the institution of private property; and for striving to create an egalitarian society.[27][28] At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture.[29] In the medieval Christian Church, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his 1516 treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.[30] In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism,[31] Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[31] Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism later emerged as a political doctrine.[32] In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.[33] Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825; and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm in 1841.[1] In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.[1] Soviet Union Main article: Communist state The Russian SFSR as a part of the Soviet Union in 1922 The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.[34][35][36] The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.[37] The moderate Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I, the peasants' demand for land reform and popular support for the soviets.[38] The Soviet Union was established in 1922. Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.[39] In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov and Nikolai Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.[40] Cold War Main article: Cold War Countries of the world now (red) or previously (orange) having nominally Marxist–Leninist communist governments Its leading role in World War II saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as an industrialized superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II.[41] Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[42] Dissolution of the Soviet Union Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[43] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes, to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.[44] Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.[45][46] Post-Soviet communism See also: List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation The Vietnamese Communist Party's poster in Hanoi At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. The South African Communist Party is a partner in the African National Congress-led government. In India as of March 2018, communists lead the government of Kerala. In Nepal, communists hold a majority in the parliament.[47] The Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party until August 2016. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001.[48] These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development. Marxist communism Main article: Marxism See also: List of communist ideologies and Marxist schools of thought A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.[49] According to Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and distribution based on one's needs. While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.[50] Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.[51] However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.[52] Marxism–Leninism and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in international relations during most of the 20th century.[53] Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.[54] Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism, capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.[55] As a term, orthodox Marxism represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.[56] Marxist concepts Class conflict and historical materialism Main articles: Class conflict and Historical materialism At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into capitalism as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.[57] These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses private ownership of the means of production, earning profit via the surplus value generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.[58] Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into communism as a new mode of production. In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.[59] It is the defeat of the bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production. ~200.194.249.126 about 2 months ago
Hello ~198.53.11.63 about 2 months ago
Communism is a plague on humanity. ~98.148.86.214 about 2 months ago
No voting. No free press. No freedom of assembly. No freedom except the binary choice of doing what you're told or being jailed/killed. But it's great, I suppose, if you're a party member at the top... ~98.148.86.214 about 2 months ago
ads ~24.4.129.182 about 2 months ago
Just rambling, that's the freedom. ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
check out the blue pill, ahem channel ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
pokpoi ~88.124.78.58 about 2 months ago
~24.4.129.182 about 2 months ago
hello ~219.248.235.237 about 2 months ago
hello ~219.248.235.237 about 2 months ago
~219.248.235.237 about 2 months ago
asdfa ~49.207.193.8 about 2 months ago
asdfa ~49.207.193.8 about 2 months ago
Fpp ~49.207.193.8 about 2 months ago
testing ~187.204.67.11 about 2 months ago
jkjk ~62.57.30.152 about 2 months ago
ffff ~62.57.30.152 about 2 months ago
ha ~148.56.60.123 about 2 months ago
test ~177.207.105.238 about 2 months ago
good ~99.229.4.191 about 2 months ago
asdf ~73.15.211.208 about 2 months ago
slow ~73.15.211.208 about 2 months ago
njkln ~187.34.146.209 about 2 months ago
n,mn ~187.34.146.209 about 2 months ago
xxxxx ~27.71.207.82 about 2 months ago
1 ~27.71.207.82 about 2 months ago
1 ~27.71.207.82 about 2 months ago
Documentation Book Search Chat Calendar Geo Selector Gravatar Permalink Reverse Text Tabular Time Series Todo Validation Chat Allows current site visitors to chat with each other Red Chat Yellow Chat Blue Chat no way ~109.42.1.243 about 1 month ago yes ~89.3.236.207 about 1 month ago hello ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago again ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago another ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Morbi scelerisque dui at dapibus tincidunt. In eleifend ante sit amet rhoncus cursus. Nullam erat lacus, ultrices vel molestie eu, luctus id enim. ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago SIema ~89.64.16.26 about 1 month ago fox ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fsfda ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fdaf ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago möp ~89.244.238.16 about 1 month ago Wat ~174.233.9.61 about 1 month ago Ohh hello ~132.157.66.33 about 1 month ago ol ~186.54.99.19 about 1 month ago wups ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago yeao ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago What's up ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Oh ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Red chat ~73.63.182.7 about 1 month ago xyzzy ~76.95.204.84 about 1 month ago junts ~76.218.232.143 about 1 month ago asdsa ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago asd ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago oi ~201.69.253.217 about 1 month ago Jj ~86.238.197.239 about 1 month ago asdasd ~95.90.235.245 about 1 month ago test ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago hb ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago whats up ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago will it update without refresh? ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago asd ~116.66.189.190 about 1 month ago Hey ~179.162.101.1 about 1 month ago delta ~190.233.206.152 about 1 month ago 123 ~122.117.159.176 about 1 month ago .................................................... ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago Hey! ~91.223.167.193 about 1 month ago ngfnhg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago hfjykgkg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago dfsdf ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago dfd ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago asxaxasx ~122.175.195.50 about 1 month ago hello ~88.232.14.72 about 1 month ago mmmm ~81.242.141.42 about 1 month ago 中文测试 ~185.171.123.229 about 1 month ago Testing ~24.52.219.109 about 1 month ago Testing again ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago This is slower. ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago bah ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago bah baj bla ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago Hhh ~91.173.77.40 about 1 month ago foo ~5.44.169.211 about 1 month ago fef ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago fsf ~119.160.99.52 about 1 month ago x ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago sdasdas a ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasda ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago mnm ~62.48.204.231 about 1 month ago ssss ~190.113.209.249 about 1 month ago wooo ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago e ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago ng ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago Hehehehe ~177.53.37.4 about 1 month ago yellow ~191.162.212.187 about 1 month ago asd ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago dsa ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago hello great library ~213.194.188.226 about 1 month ago hello there ~94.153.175.14 about 1 month ago Test ~140.213.16.10 about 1 month ago Master red ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago sdasd ~187.109.134.252 about 1 month ago qwlfsadf foif;oaf ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago dsaasd ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sada ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sadsda ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago asdasdsa ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sdfg ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago tzjtzju ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago tfgxhnxgt ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago asd ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago text ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago Hi All ~94.2.106.9 about 1 month ago hi ~109.151.227.208 about 1 month ago test ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago Fooo ~88.130.49.141 about 1 month ago ll ~96.21.67.232 about 1 month ago hi ~105.189.3.220 about 1 month ago 1 ~189.47.53.87 about 1 month ago 17 minutes ago... ~37.117.91.238 about 1 month ago .; ~73.124.51.133 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago n ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago qsqq ~84.136.139.167 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago x ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago ccc ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago hi there! ~178.88.192.68 about 1 month ago Woot! the Cable is ready! ~24.207.28.193 about 1 month ago asdf ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago movie ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago hello ~177.55.157.202 about 1 month ago hola ~187.162.241.130 about 1 month ago dfdfd ~179.93.154.236 about 1 month ago afadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago sDsd ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago Hi ~65.94.148.85 about 1 month ago asd ~85.203.46.71 about 1 month ago hey ~76.9.169.33 about 1 month ago hey ~132.157.66.214 about 1 month ago ~96.55.168.219 30 days ago ~96.55.168.219 30 days ago U ~211.57.234.206 30 days ago yuiop[ ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago ;lm;lm ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago awasdwqd ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago shd ~177.207.103.66 29 days ago aaaa ~42.191.40.97 29 days ago aaaaaaaa ~42.191.40.97 29 days ago jjjjj ~201.59.73.69 29 days ago hello ~31.215.241.143 29 days ago okok ~181.126.132.197 29 days ago eqwewq ~177.107.17.93 29 days ago awefawe ~103.238.71.112 29 days ago ghjghj ~24.133.102.47 29 days ago 2323 ~217.110.132.66 29 days ago fff ~217.110.132.66 29 days ago test ~77.21.84.29 29 days ago Hhh ~92.35.72.37 29 days ago asfd ~12.119.196.190 28 days ago test ~65.49.87.128 28 days ago ~65.49.87.128 28 days ago Alef ~191.7.149.111 28 days ago aa ~121.200.5.13 28 days ago ,,, ~71.38.175.60 28 days ago hi ~187.190.173.234 28 days ago Hello from india ~47.247.130.227 28 days ago Hi from Spain ~81.45.85.121 28 days ago All good? ~81.45.85.121 28 days ago Hello ! ~109.220.173.119 28 days ago What is this? ~81.165.102.37 28 days ago sup ~147.78.29.175 27 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago asdsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago hey ~24.207.28.193 27 days ago some ~24.124.62.21 27 days ago hello ~177.247.114.91 27 days ago knkjkj ~177.247.114.91 27 days ago dfg ~161.230.80.129 27 days ago asd ~126.25.150.45 27 days ago hello ~67.190.190.7 27 days ago asdasdsa ~176.117.190.22 27 days ago dasdsadas ~176.117.190.22 27 days ago Test ~126.140.177.6 27 days ago 的 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago 的收到的 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago 收到 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago Мда ~45.83.91.26 27 days ago ~189.6.241.5 26 days ago Tttt ~189.6.241.5 26 days ago Nflfnfb ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago Nfkfbfk ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago sdf ~178.120.58.44 26 days ago Lenfgb ~86.242.133.89 26 days ago Jenfbfbnfkf ~86.242.133.89 26 days ago sfgfgfsgfs ~76.176.124.215 26 days ago 水电费费 ~139.162.82.216 25 days ago Hi ~75.179.151.184 25 days ago test ~168.121.98.98 25 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago test ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago Check ~87.110.18.136 25 days ago njhgzgz ~91.64.107.184 25 days ago Hey ~45.37.182.35 24 days ago Hello ~73.66.22.255 24 days ago ~77.181.53.225 23 days ago ~77.181.53.225 23 days ago foooo ~72.48.211.189 23 days ago test ~17.150.217.239 23 days ago asdasd ~189.4.79.33 23 days ago hey ~65.92.9.186 23 days ago hows it going? ~65.92.9.186 23 days ago asd ~167.57.3.74 23 days ago q32 ~167.57.3.74 23 days ago test ~108.31.220.92 23 days ago Test ~217.252.68.61 23 days ago Hi ~37.120.201.120 23 days ago af ~46.227.107.66 23 days ago t ~46.7.251.50 23 days ago asdasdasd ~100.11.129.208 22 days ago What? ~100.11.129.208 22 days ago :P ~178.27.174.86 22 days ago Cool ~72.182.112.131 22 days ago a ~89.238.150.30 22 days ago ioiouiou ~88.97.101.30 22 days ago asdasd ~207.96.96.249 22 days ago Hey ~189.207.103.83 21 days ago g ~24.56.25.173 21 days ago q ~70.187.22.123 21 days ago cock ~188.26.60.10 21 days ago Ella ~73.30.185.91 21 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago hello ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago test ~65.79.128.224 21 days ago Furz ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Hhuu ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Reaaaaative but slow ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Lol ~85.149.17.71 21 days ago test ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago test again ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago Uh it doesn't seem slow at all to me ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 20 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 20 days ago Fast ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago As ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago Tw ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago Nice ~46.44.148.89 20 days ago sdfnjtj ~196.119.239.226 19 days ago this is only a test ~74.132.145.7 18 days ago re ~95.91.236.53 18 days ago hello ~66.151.147.212 18 days ago this is blue ~24.61.61.221 18 days ago hi ~86.91.136.206 18 days ago ~86.91.136.206 18 days ago ghjk ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago efds ~177.79.105.33 18 days ago hola ~167.249.216.118 18 days ago rojo ~167.249.216.118 18 days ago Hey ~166.137.244.20 18 days ago ~166.137.244.20 18 days ago 987789 ~186.23.95.244 18 days ago df ~95.161.221.91 18 days ago Is this interesting ~222.153.112.100 18 days ago dsf ~71.212.112.90 18 days ago sdsd ~24.34.191.170 18 days ago sdfsdfsdf ~50.121.84.32 18 days ago hello \ ~45.125.171.248 18 days ago what's up ~45.125.171.248 18 days ago Yo! ~100.16.238.164 18 days ago Hey ~109.118.93.91 18 days ago lkj ~86.123.159.100 18 days ago wa ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago w ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago Lol ~24.130.193.226 18 days ago ~24.130.193.226 18 days ago ~95.60.67.160 17 days ago f ~95.60.67.160 17 days ago hi ~100.14.75.61 17 days ago kjj ~186.189.239.38 17 days ago Hi there. ~166.137.139.63 17 days ago Yuui ~8.40.140.109 17 days ago Yuhnh ~8.40.140.109 17 days ago jojo ~80.187.113.189 16 days ago test ~137.97.107.4 16 days ago jo joo jo ~190.18.144.44 16 days ago Hi! ~87.3.14.220 16 days ago ll ~212.109.29.167 16 days ago Jdhe ~70.29.37.38 15 days ago yo ~73.158.98.90 15 days ago test ~107.12.63.191 15 days ago hi ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ??? ~136.32.105.57 15 days ago hello ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago dfgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago dfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago fgghf ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago hghghg ~46.1.119.144 15 days ago jjhhhhghb ~46.1.119.144 15 days ago wow man ~117.200.15.117 15 days ago hahaha ~122.163.204.236 15 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 15 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 15 days ago vvvvvvvvc ~187.247.165.13 14 days ago asdf ~72.220.27.104 14 days ago lolo ~152.115.180.242 14 days ago mnmnmn ~62.57.30.152 14 days ago asdfijsadf ~76.217.55.15 13 days ago Hi ~193.28.37.161 13 days ago Hello ~193.28.37.161 13 days ago hoge ~219.59.7.246 13 days ago Yo ~78.194.46.129 13 days ago hey ~213.233.155.135 13 days ago Sup ~174.116.101.18 12 days ago mkmlkm ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago lkjnljk ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago dcs ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago adsf ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago dxadsx ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago red ~177.97.20.202 12 days ago asdasd ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago yers ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago yarp! ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago Hi joe are out doing ~75.88.238.147 12 days ago gren ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago test ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago cow ~216.248.84.117 11 days ago horse ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago ff ~95.161.221.91 11 days ago dsf ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago sdcsd ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago adsc ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago SD ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago hello ~60.231.224.166 11 days ago aaa ~77.237.10.215 11 days ago dfvdfv ~217.131.78.203 11 days ago Hello ~64.46.19.119 10 days ago ~64.46.19.119 10 days ago test ~151.112.127.104 10 days ago Chat ~93.5.100.117 10 days ago ~93.5.100.117 10 days ago chat ~24.232.114.66 10 days ago badum ~77.254.226.66 10 days ago Ok ~93.22.149.190 10 days ago this is a test ~47.186.250.114 10 days ago wohoo! ~83.28.235.250 9 days ago helloo ~213.77.149.107 9 days ago test ~131.100.95.53 9 days ago slow but exciting ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago really slow... ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago can be useful in some cases ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago oji ~109.195.147.170 9 days ago oi ~188.151.127.100 9 days ago Ping ~71.220.58.228 8 days ago ;m; ~88.119.50.35 8 days ago lkjhlk ~187.243.96.191 8 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 7 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago wqesdfsdfdfds ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago Hello world! ~49.207.203.213 7 days ago Hi ~49.156.156.74 7 days ago Hi ~99.149.120.190 7 days ago test 123 ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago xxx ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 7 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 7 days ago qqqqqq ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago vbvbvbvb ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago hola ~49.145.174.21 7 days ago hello ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago Hi there ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago here we are ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago yes ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago hi ~24.160.101.4 6 days ago gfd ~67.170.41.140 6 days ago b00m ~72.226.65.161 6 days ago Hi ~157.37.167.7 6 days ago ~51.36.17.205 6 days ago test ~51.36.17.205 6 days ago jojoj ~86.99.149.156 6 days ago zhid id s zrsdz ~83.175.113.174 6 days ago sasas ~109.166.138.238 5 days ago wqwqwqwqwqwqwq ~109.166.138.238 5 days ago <h1>Hackerman</h1> ~62.23.191.42 5 days ago Mein Glied schwitzt. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Die Wurst streifte meinen Sack. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Mein Urin ist ocker. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Ich stuhle mich nun vor Freude ein! ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Realtime? ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Hallo?! ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago OK, die kleiner Verzögerung kann man verkraften. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Ich korrigiere: "die kleine Verzögerung" ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Wieso ist der verdammte Lüfter von meinem MacBook Pro am Laufen? ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago go monr ~113.118.169.172 4 days ago kind of slow? ~113.118.169.172 4 days ago h ~94.246.131.106 4 days ago lkjsdf ~81.250.227.245 4 days ago 6 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 561651 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 263 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 626 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago fes dwa ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago a ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago daw ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago adwadaw dwad wa d wa da w ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago <h1>aa</h1> ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Communism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Communism (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Communalism or Communitarianism. Part of a series on Communism Concepts [hide] Anti-capitalism Class conflict Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Commune Commune (model of government) Communist society Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Market abolitionism Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World communism World revolution Aspects [hide] Communist party List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist parties Communist revolution Communist state Communist symbolism History of communism Variants [hide] Anarchist Marxism Leninist Libertarian Pre-Marxist Utopian Primitive Religious Christian Internationals [hide] Communist League First International Second International Third International Fourth International People [hide] More Campanella Babeuf Owen Weitling Marx Engels Reclus Kropotkin Malatesta Luxemburg Zetkin Liebknecht Lenin Berkman Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Trotsky Makhno Kollontai Gramsci Stalin Durruti Pannekoek Pankhurst Reich Togliatti Ho Mao Tito Camus Marcuse Sartre Hoxha Beauvoir Guevara Pasolini Kim Berlinguer Castoriadis Debord Bookchin Castro Marcos By region [hide] Colombia France India Kerala Korea Nepal Peru Philippines Poland Russia Sumatra Vietnam Anthem [hide] "The Internationale" Related topics [hide] Anarchism Social Anti-communism Anti anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Capitalism Communitarianism Crimes against humanity under communist regimes (Mass killings) Critical theory Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics Old Left New Left Marx's theory of alienation National communism Romania Red Scare Revolution Social democracy Socialism Democratic Libertarian Revolutionary Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Trade union War communism Worker cooperative Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg Communism portal vte Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] History Main article: History of communism Early communism See also: Religious communism, Scientific socialism, and Utopian socialism According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece.[26] The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy; for criticizing the institution of private property; and for striving to create an egalitarian society.[27][28] At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture.[29] In the medieval Christian Church, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his 1516 treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.[30] In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism,[31] Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[31] Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism later emerged as a political doctrine.[32] In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.[33] Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825; and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm in 1841.[1] In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.[1] Soviet Union Main article: Communist state The Russian SFSR as a part of the Soviet Union in 1922 The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.[34][35][36] The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.[37] The moderate Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I, the peasants' demand for land reform and popular support for the soviets.[38] The Soviet Union was established in 1922. Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.[39] In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov and Nikolai Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.[40] Cold War Main article: Cold War Countries of the world now (red) or previously (orange) having nominally Marxist–Leninist communist governments Its leading role in World War II saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as an industrialized superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II.[41] Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[42] Dissolution of the Soviet Union Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[43] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes, to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.[44] Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.[45][46] Post-Soviet communism See also: List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation The Vietnamese Communist Party's poster in Hanoi At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. The South African Communist Party is a partner in the African National Congress-led government. In India as of March 2018, communists lead the government of Kerala. In Nepal, communists hold a majority in the parliament.[47] The Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party until August 2016. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001.[48] These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development. Marxist communism Main article: Marxism See also: List of communist ideologies and Marxist schools of thought A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.[49] According to Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and distribution based on one's needs. While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.[50] Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.[51] However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.[52] Marxism–Leninism and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in international relations during most of the 20th century.[53] Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.[54] Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism, capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.[55] As a term, orthodox Marxism represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.[56] Marxist concepts Class conflict and historical materialism Main articles: Class conflict and Historical materialism At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into capitalism as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.[57] These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses private ownership of the means of production, earning profit via the surplus value generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.[58] Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into communism as a new mode of production. In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.[59] It is the defeat of the bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production. ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Hello ~198.53.11.63 3 days ago Communism is a plague on humanity. ~98.148.86.214 3 days ago No voting. No free press. No freedom of assembly. No freedom except the binary choice of doing what you're told or being jailed/killed. But it's great, I suppose, if you're a party member at the top... ~98.148.86.214 3 days ago ads ~24.4.129.182 3 days ago Just rambling, that's the freedom. ~178.113.78.214 3 days ago check out the blue pill, ahem channel ~178.113.78.214 3 days ago pokpoi ~88.124.78.58 2 days ago ~24.4.129.182 2 days ago hello ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago hello ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago asdfa ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago asdfa ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago Fpp ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago testing ~187.204.67.11 1 day ago jkjk ~62.57.30.152 about 17 hours ago ffff ~62.57.30.152 about 17 hours ago ha ~148.56.60.123 about 14 hours ago test ~177.207.105.238 about 13 hours ago good ~99.229.4.191 about 8 hours ago asdf ~73.15.211.208 about 6 hours ago slow ~73.15.211.208 about 6 hours ago njkln ~187.34.146.209 about 2 hours ago n,mn ~187.34.146.209 about 2 hours ago xxxxx ~me less than a minute ago 1 ~me less than a minute ago 1 ~me less than a minute ago Type your message... Code (117 LOC) ERB (41 LOC) JavaScript (48 LOC) Ruby (28 LOC) © 2019 Nathan Hopkins, All Rights Reserved Fork this Project Session ID: 4025134adec7aef2ab684511a6654d2f ~27.71.207.82 about 2 months ago
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Documentation Book Search Chat Calendar Geo Selector Gravatar Permalink Reverse Text Tabular Time Series Todo Validation Chat Allows current site visitors to chat with each other Red Chat Yellow Chat Blue Chat no way ~109.42.1.243 about 1 month ago yes ~89.3.236.207 about 1 month ago hello ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago again ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago another ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Morbi scelerisque dui at dapibus tincidunt. In eleifend ante sit amet rhoncus cursus. Nullam erat lacus, ultrices vel molestie eu, luctus id enim. ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago SIema ~89.64.16.26 about 1 month ago fox ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fsfda ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fdaf ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago möp ~89.244.238.16 about 1 month ago Wat ~174.233.9.61 about 1 month ago Ohh hello ~132.157.66.33 about 1 month ago ol ~186.54.99.19 about 1 month ago wups ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago yeao ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago What's up ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Oh ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Red chat ~73.63.182.7 about 1 month ago xyzzy ~76.95.204.84 about 1 month ago junts ~76.218.232.143 about 1 month ago asdsa ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago asd ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago oi ~201.69.253.217 about 1 month ago Jj ~86.238.197.239 about 1 month ago asdasd ~95.90.235.245 about 1 month ago test ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago hb ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago whats up ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago will it update without refresh? ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago asd ~116.66.189.190 about 1 month ago Hey ~179.162.101.1 about 1 month ago delta ~190.233.206.152 about 1 month ago 123 ~122.117.159.176 about 1 month ago .................................................... ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago Hey! ~91.223.167.193 about 1 month ago ngfnhg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago hfjykgkg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago dfsdf ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago dfd ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago asxaxasx ~122.175.195.50 about 1 month ago hello ~88.232.14.72 about 1 month ago mmmm ~81.242.141.42 about 1 month ago 中文测试 ~185.171.123.229 about 1 month ago Testing ~24.52.219.109 about 1 month ago Testing again ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago This is slower. ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago bah ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago bah baj bla ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago Hhh ~91.173.77.40 about 1 month ago foo ~5.44.169.211 about 1 month ago fef ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago fsf ~119.160.99.52 about 1 month ago x ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago sdasdas a ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasda ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago mnm ~62.48.204.231 about 1 month ago ssss ~190.113.209.249 about 1 month ago wooo ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago e ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago ng ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago Hehehehe ~177.53.37.4 about 1 month ago yellow ~191.162.212.187 about 1 month ago asd ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago dsa ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago hello great library ~213.194.188.226 about 1 month ago hello there ~94.153.175.14 about 1 month ago Test ~140.213.16.10 about 1 month ago Master red ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago sdasd ~187.109.134.252 about 1 month ago qwlfsadf foif;oaf ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago dsaasd ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sada ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sadsda ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago asdasdsa ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sdfg ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago tzjtzju ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago tfgxhnxgt ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago asd ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago text ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago Hi All ~94.2.106.9 about 1 month ago hi ~109.151.227.208 about 1 month ago test ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago Fooo ~88.130.49.141 about 1 month ago ll ~96.21.67.232 about 1 month ago hi ~105.189.3.220 about 1 month ago 1 ~189.47.53.87 about 1 month ago 17 minutes ago... ~37.117.91.238 about 1 month ago .; ~73.124.51.133 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago n ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago qsqq ~84.136.139.167 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago x ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago ccc ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago hi there! ~178.88.192.68 about 1 month ago Woot! the Cable is ready! ~24.207.28.193 about 1 month ago asdf ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago movie ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago hello ~177.55.157.202 about 1 month ago hola ~187.162.241.130 about 1 month ago dfdfd ~179.93.154.236 about 1 month ago afadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago sDsd ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago Hi ~65.94.148.85 about 1 month ago asd ~85.203.46.71 about 1 month ago hey ~76.9.169.33 about 1 month ago hey ~132.157.66.214 about 1 month ago ~96.55.168.219 about 1 month ago ~96.55.168.219 about 1 month ago U ~211.57.234.206 about 1 month ago yuiop[ ~17.149.235.64 about 1 month ago ~17.149.235.64 about 1 month ago ;lm;lm ~17.149.235.64 about 1 month ago awasdwqd ~17.149.235.64 about 1 month ago shd ~177.207.103.66 about 1 month ago aaaa ~42.191.40.97 about 1 month ago aaaaaaaa ~42.191.40.97 about 1 month ago jjjjj ~201.59.73.69 about 1 month ago hello ~31.215.241.143 about 1 month ago okok ~181.126.132.197 about 1 month ago eqwewq ~177.107.17.93 about 1 month ago awefawe ~103.238.71.112 about 1 month ago ghjghj ~24.133.102.47 about 1 month ago 2323 ~217.110.132.66 about 1 month ago fff ~217.110.132.66 about 1 month ago test ~77.21.84.29 about 1 month ago Hhh ~92.35.72.37 about 1 month ago asfd ~12.119.196.190 about 1 month ago test ~65.49.87.128 about 1 month ago ~65.49.87.128 about 1 month ago Alef ~191.7.149.111 about 1 month ago aa ~121.200.5.13 about 1 month ago ,,, ~71.38.175.60 about 1 month ago hi ~187.190.173.234 about 1 month ago Hello from india ~47.247.130.227 about 1 month ago Hi from Spain ~81.45.85.121 30 days ago All good? ~81.45.85.121 30 days ago Hello ! ~109.220.173.119 30 days ago What is this? ~81.165.102.37 30 days ago sup ~147.78.29.175 30 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 30 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 30 days ago asdsad ~120.188.82.165 30 days ago hey ~24.207.28.193 30 days ago some ~24.124.62.21 30 days ago hello ~177.247.114.91 30 days ago knkjkj ~177.247.114.91 30 days ago dfg ~161.230.80.129 30 days ago asd ~126.25.150.45 29 days ago hello ~67.190.190.7 29 days ago asdasdsa ~176.117.190.22 29 days ago dasdsadas ~176.117.190.22 29 days ago Test ~126.140.177.6 29 days ago 的 ~163.125.33.187 29 days ago 的收到的 ~163.125.33.187 29 days ago 收到 ~163.125.33.187 29 days ago Мда ~45.83.91.26 29 days ago ~189.6.241.5 29 days ago Tttt ~189.6.241.5 29 days ago Nflfnfb ~188.126.167.188 29 days ago ~188.126.167.188 29 days ago Nfkfbfk ~188.126.167.188 29 days ago sdf ~178.120.58.44 29 days ago Lenfgb ~86.242.133.89 29 days ago Jenfbfbnfkf ~86.242.133.89 29 days ago sfgfgfsgfs ~76.176.124.215 29 days ago 水电费费 ~139.162.82.216 27 days ago Hi ~75.179.151.184 27 days ago test ~168.121.98.98 27 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 27 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 27 days ago test ~81.18.93.34 27 days ago Check ~87.110.18.136 27 days ago njhgzgz ~91.64.107.184 27 days ago Hey ~45.37.182.35 27 days ago Hello ~73.66.22.255 27 days ago ~77.181.53.225 26 days ago ~77.181.53.225 26 days ago foooo ~72.48.211.189 26 days ago test ~17.150.217.239 26 days ago asdasd ~189.4.79.33 26 days ago hey ~65.92.9.186 26 days ago hows it going? ~65.92.9.186 26 days ago asd ~167.57.3.74 26 days ago q32 ~167.57.3.74 26 days ago test ~108.31.220.92 25 days ago Test ~217.252.68.61 25 days ago Hi ~37.120.201.120 25 days ago af ~46.227.107.66 25 days ago t ~46.7.251.50 25 days ago asdasdasd ~100.11.129.208 25 days ago What? ~100.11.129.208 25 days ago :P ~178.27.174.86 25 days ago Cool ~72.182.112.131 24 days ago a ~89.238.150.30 24 days ago ioiouiou ~88.97.101.30 24 days ago asdasd ~207.96.96.249 24 days ago Hey ~189.207.103.83 24 days ago g ~24.56.25.173 24 days ago q ~70.187.22.123 24 days ago cock ~188.26.60.10 23 days ago Ella ~73.30.185.91 23 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 23 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 23 days ago ~119.46.57.98 23 days ago hello ~119.46.57.98 23 days ago test ~65.79.128.224 23 days ago Furz ~46.114.38.137 23 days ago Hhuu ~46.114.38.137 23 days ago Reaaaaative but slow ~46.114.38.137 23 days ago Lol ~85.149.17.71 23 days ago test ~47.41.24.33 23 days ago test again ~47.41.24.33 23 days ago Uh it doesn't seem slow at all to me ~47.41.24.33 23 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 23 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 23 days ago Fast ~50.92.169.4 22 days ago As ~50.92.169.4 22 days ago Tw ~50.92.169.4 22 days ago Nice ~46.44.148.89 22 days ago sdfnjtj ~196.119.239.226 22 days ago this is only a test ~74.132.145.7 21 days ago re ~95.91.236.53 21 days ago hello ~66.151.147.212 21 days ago this is blue ~24.61.61.221 21 days ago hi ~86.91.136.206 21 days ago ~86.91.136.206 21 days ago ghjk ~82.154.163.165 21 days ago ~82.154.163.165 21 days ago ~82.154.163.165 21 days ago ~82.154.163.165 21 days ago efds ~177.79.105.33 21 days ago hola ~167.249.216.118 21 days ago rojo ~167.249.216.118 21 days ago Hey ~166.137.244.20 21 days ago ~166.137.244.20 21 days ago 987789 ~186.23.95.244 21 days ago df ~95.161.221.91 21 days ago Is this interesting ~222.153.112.100 20 days ago dsf ~71.212.112.90 20 days ago sdsd ~24.34.191.170 20 days ago sdfsdfsdf ~50.121.84.32 20 days ago hello \ ~45.125.171.248 20 days ago what's up ~45.125.171.248 20 days ago Yo! ~100.16.238.164 20 days ago Hey ~109.118.93.91 20 days ago lkj ~86.123.159.100 20 days ago wa ~82.207.236.107 20 days ago w ~82.207.236.107 20 days ago ~82.207.236.107 20 days ago Lol ~24.130.193.226 20 days ago ~24.130.193.226 20 days ago ~95.60.67.160 20 days ago f ~95.60.67.160 20 days ago hi ~100.14.75.61 20 days ago kjj ~186.189.239.38 20 days ago Hi there. ~166.137.139.63 19 days ago Yuui ~8.40.140.109 19 days ago Yuhnh ~8.40.140.109 19 days ago jojo ~80.187.113.189 19 days ago test ~137.97.107.4 19 days ago jo joo jo ~190.18.144.44 19 days ago Hi! ~87.3.14.220 18 days ago ll ~212.109.29.167 18 days ago Jdhe ~70.29.37.38 18 days ago yo ~73.158.98.90 18 days ago test ~107.12.63.191 18 days ago hi ~186.13.140.18 18 days ago ~186.13.140.18 18 days ago ~186.13.140.18 18 days ago ??? ~136.32.105.57 17 days ago hello ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago sdfgdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago dfgdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago sdfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago sdfgg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago dfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago fgghf ~119.18.3.132 17 days ago hghghg ~46.1.119.144 17 days ago jjhhhhghb ~46.1.119.144 17 days ago wow man ~117.200.15.117 17 days ago hahaha ~122.163.204.236 17 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 17 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 17 days ago vvvvvvvvc ~187.247.165.13 17 days ago asdf ~72.220.27.104 17 days ago lolo ~152.115.180.242 16 days ago mnmnmn ~62.57.30.152 16 days ago asdfijsadf ~76.217.55.15 16 days ago Hi ~193.28.37.161 16 days ago Hello ~193.28.37.161 16 days ago hoge ~219.59.7.246 16 days ago Yo ~78.194.46.129 15 days ago hey ~213.233.155.135 15 days ago Sup ~174.116.101.18 15 days ago mkmlkm ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago lkjnljk ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago dcs ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago adsf ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago dxadsx ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago red ~177.97.20.202 14 days ago asdasd ~86.23.76.215 14 days ago yers ~86.23.76.215 14 days ago yarp! ~86.23.76.215 14 days ago Hi joe are out doing ~75.88.238.147 14 days ago gren ~50.82.90.198 14 days ago test ~50.82.90.198 14 days ago cow ~216.248.84.117 14 days ago horse ~50.82.90.198 14 days ago ff ~95.161.221.91 14 days ago dsf ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago sdcsd ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago adsc ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago SD ~70.181.102.97 14 days ago hello ~60.231.224.166 13 days ago aaa ~77.237.10.215 13 days ago dfvdfv ~217.131.78.203 13 days ago Hello ~64.46.19.119 13 days ago ~64.46.19.119 13 days ago test ~151.112.127.104 13 days ago Chat ~93.5.100.117 13 days ago ~93.5.100.117 13 days ago chat ~24.232.114.66 12 days ago badum ~77.254.226.66 12 days ago Ok ~93.22.149.190 12 days ago this is a test ~47.186.250.114 12 days ago wohoo! ~83.28.235.250 12 days ago helloo ~213.77.149.107 12 days ago test ~131.100.95.53 11 days ago slow but exciting ~178.120.20.79 11 days ago really slow... ~178.120.20.79 11 days ago can be useful in some cases ~178.120.20.79 11 days ago oji ~109.195.147.170 11 days ago oi ~188.151.127.100 11 days ago Ping ~71.220.58.228 10 days ago ;m; ~88.119.50.35 10 days ago lkjhlk ~187.243.96.191 10 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 10 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 10 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 10 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 10 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 10 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 10 days ago wqesdfsdfdfds ~103.117.162.202 10 days ago Hello world! ~49.207.203.213 9 days ago Hi ~49.156.156.74 9 days ago Hi ~99.149.120.190 9 days ago test 123 ~46.1.119.144 9 days ago xxx ~46.1.119.144 9 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 9 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 9 days ago qqqqqq ~46.1.119.144 9 days ago vbvbvbvb ~46.1.119.144 9 days ago hola ~49.145.174.21 9 days ago hello ~217.131.85.78 9 days ago Hi there ~217.131.85.78 9 days ago here we are ~217.131.85.78 9 days ago yes ~217.131.85.78 9 days ago hi ~24.160.101.4 9 days ago gfd ~67.170.41.140 9 days ago b00m ~72.226.65.161 9 days ago Hi ~157.37.167.7 9 days ago ~51.36.17.205 8 days ago test ~51.36.17.205 8 days ago jojoj ~86.99.149.156 8 days ago zhid id s zrsdz ~83.175.113.174 8 days ago sasas ~109.166.138.238 7 days ago wqwqwqwqwqwqwq ~109.166.138.238 7 days ago <h1>Hackerman</h1> ~62.23.191.42 7 days ago Mein Glied schwitzt. ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Die Wurst streifte meinen Sack. ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Mein Urin ist ocker. ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Ich stuhle mich nun vor Freude ein! ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Realtime? ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Hallo?! ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago OK, die kleiner Verzögerung kann man verkraften. ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Ich korrigiere: "die kleine Verzögerung" ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago Wieso ist der verdammte Lüfter von meinem MacBook Pro am Laufen? ~95.90.252.209 7 days ago go monr ~113.118.169.172 6 days ago kind of slow? ~113.118.169.172 6 days ago h ~94.246.131.106 6 days ago lkjsdf ~81.250.227.245 6 days ago 6 ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago 561651 ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago 263 ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago 626 ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago fes dwa ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago a ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago daw ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago adwadaw dwad wa d wa da w ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago <h1>aa</h1> ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago Communism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Communism (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Communalism or Communitarianism. Part of a series on Communism Concepts [hide] Anti-capitalism Class conflict Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Commune Commune (model of government) Communist society Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Market abolitionism Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World communism World revolution Aspects [hide] Communist party List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist parties Communist revolution Communist state Communist symbolism History of communism Variants [hide] Anarchist Marxism Leninist Libertarian Pre-Marxist Utopian Primitive Religious Christian Internationals [hide] Communist League First International Second International Third International Fourth International People [hide] More Campanella Babeuf Owen Weitling Marx Engels Reclus Kropotkin Malatesta Luxemburg Zetkin Liebknecht Lenin Berkman Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Trotsky Makhno Kollontai Gramsci Stalin Durruti Pannekoek Pankhurst Reich Togliatti Ho Mao Tito Camus Marcuse Sartre Hoxha Beauvoir Guevara Pasolini Kim Berlinguer Castoriadis Debord Bookchin Castro Marcos By region [hide] Colombia France India Kerala Korea Nepal Peru Philippines Poland Russia Sumatra Vietnam Anthem [hide] "The Internationale" Related topics [hide] Anarchism Social Anti-communism Anti anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Capitalism Communitarianism Crimes against humanity under communist regimes (Mass killings) Critical theory Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics Old Left New Left Marx's theory of alienation National communism Romania Red Scare Revolution Social democracy Socialism Democratic Libertarian Revolutionary Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Trade union War communism Worker cooperative Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg Communism portal vte Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] History Main article: History of communism Early communism See also: Religious communism, Scientific socialism, and Utopian socialism According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece.[26] The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy; for criticizing the institution of private property; and for striving to create an egalitarian society.[27][28] At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture.[29] In the medieval Christian Church, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his 1516 treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.[30] In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism,[31] Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[31] Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism later emerged as a political doctrine.[32] In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.[33] Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825; and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm in 1841.[1] In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.[1] Soviet Union Main article: Communist state The Russian SFSR as a part of the Soviet Union in 1922 The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.[34][35][36] The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.[37] The moderate Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I, the peasants' demand for land reform and popular support for the soviets.[38] The Soviet Union was established in 1922. Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.[39] In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov and Nikolai Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.[40] Cold War Main article: Cold War Countries of the world now (red) or previously (orange) having nominally Marxist–Leninist communist governments Its leading role in World War II saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as an industrialized superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II.[41] Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[42] Dissolution of the Soviet Union Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[43] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes, to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.[44] Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.[45][46] Post-Soviet communism See also: List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation The Vietnamese Communist Party's poster in Hanoi At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. The South African Communist Party is a partner in the African National Congress-led government. In India as of March 2018, communists lead the government of Kerala. In Nepal, communists hold a majority in the parliament.[47] The Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party until August 2016. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001.[48] These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development. Marxist communism Main article: Marxism See also: List of communist ideologies and Marxist schools of thought A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.[49] According to Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and distribution based on one's needs. While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.[50] Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.[51] However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.[52] Marxism–Leninism and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in international relations during most of the 20th century.[53] Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.[54] Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism, capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.[55] As a term, orthodox Marxism represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.[56] Marxist concepts Class conflict and historical materialism Main articles: Class conflict and Historical materialism At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into capitalism as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.[57] These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses private ownership of the means of production, earning profit via the surplus value generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.[58] Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into communism as a new mode of production. In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.[59] It is the defeat of the bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production. ~200.194.249.126 6 days ago Hello ~198.53.11.63 6 days ago Communism is a plague on humanity. ~98.148.86.214 5 days ago No voting. No free press. No freedom of assembly. No freedom except the binary choice of doing what you're told or being jailed/killed. 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Nullam erat lacus, ultrices vel molestie eu, luctus id enim. ~82.3.252.190 about 1 month ago SIema ~89.64.16.26 about 1 month ago fox ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fsfda ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago fdaf ~111.240.38.62 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago hi ~223.29.224.166 about 1 month ago möp ~89.244.238.16 about 1 month ago Wat ~174.233.9.61 about 1 month ago Ohh hello ~132.157.66.33 about 1 month ago ol ~186.54.99.19 about 1 month ago wups ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago yeao ~187.192.187.200 about 1 month ago What's up ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Oh ~137.97.159.78 about 1 month ago Red chat ~73.63.182.7 about 1 month ago xyzzy ~76.95.204.84 about 1 month ago junts ~76.218.232.143 about 1 month ago asdsa ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago asd ~186.54.44.144 about 1 month ago oi ~201.69.253.217 about 1 month ago Jj ~86.238.197.239 about 1 month ago asdasd ~95.90.235.245 about 1 month ago test ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago hb ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago whats up ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago will it update without refresh? ~71.239.22.9 about 1 month ago asd ~116.66.189.190 about 1 month ago Hey ~179.162.101.1 about 1 month ago delta ~190.233.206.152 about 1 month ago 123 ~122.117.159.176 about 1 month ago .................................................... ~82.10.8.32 about 1 month ago Hey! ~91.223.167.193 about 1 month ago ngfnhg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago hfjykgkg ~213.174.0.249 about 1 month ago dfsdf ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago dfd ~151.231.14.122 about 1 month ago asxaxasx ~122.175.195.50 about 1 month ago hello ~88.232.14.72 about 1 month ago mmmm ~81.242.141.42 about 1 month ago 中文测试 ~185.171.123.229 about 1 month ago Testing ~24.52.219.109 about 1 month ago Testing again ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago This is slower. ~70.151.49.222 about 1 month ago bah ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago bah baj bla ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago ~139.47.66.80 about 1 month ago Hhh ~91.173.77.40 about 1 month ago foo ~5.44.169.211 about 1 month ago fef ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago ~78.236.182.140 about 1 month ago fsf ~119.160.99.52 about 1 month ago x ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago ~84.244.73.226 about 1 month ago sdasdas a ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasda ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago dasdasd ~186.53.127.229 about 1 month ago mnm ~62.48.204.231 about 1 month ago ssss ~190.113.209.249 about 1 month ago wooo ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago e ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago ng ~91.234.137.252 about 1 month ago Hehehehe ~177.53.37.4 about 1 month ago yellow ~191.162.212.187 about 1 month ago asd ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago dsa ~169.1.22.195 about 1 month ago hello great library ~213.194.188.226 about 1 month ago hello there ~94.153.175.14 about 1 month ago Test ~140.213.16.10 about 1 month ago Master red ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago sdasd ~187.109.134.252 about 1 month ago qwlfsadf foif;oaf ~170.82.253.148 about 1 month ago dsaasd ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sada ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sadsda ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago asdasdsa ~201.171.69.231 about 1 month ago sdfg ~72.48.211.189 about 1 month ago tzjtzju ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago tfgxhnxgt ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago asd ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago text ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago Hi All ~94.2.106.9 about 1 month ago hi ~109.151.227.208 about 1 month ago test ~87.128.80.229 about 1 month ago Fooo ~88.130.49.141 about 1 month ago ll ~96.21.67.232 about 1 month ago hi ~105.189.3.220 about 1 month ago 1 ~189.47.53.87 about 1 month ago 17 minutes ago... ~37.117.91.238 about 1 month ago .; ~73.124.51.133 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago k ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago n ~91.7.98.16 about 1 month ago qsqq ~84.136.139.167 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago dsdds ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago x ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago ccc ~90.23.200.17 about 1 month ago hi there! ~178.88.192.68 about 1 month ago Woot! the Cable is ready! ~24.207.28.193 about 1 month ago asdf ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago movie ~116.87.177.178 about 1 month ago hello ~177.55.157.202 about 1 month ago hola ~187.162.241.130 about 1 month ago dfdfd ~179.93.154.236 about 1 month ago afadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago adfadf ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago sDsd ~38.242.5.24 about 1 month ago Hi ~65.94.148.85 about 1 month ago asd ~85.203.46.71 about 1 month ago hey ~76.9.169.33 about 1 month ago hey ~132.157.66.214 about 1 month ago ~96.55.168.219 30 days ago ~96.55.168.219 30 days ago U ~211.57.234.206 30 days ago yuiop[ ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago ;lm;lm ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago awasdwqd ~17.149.235.64 30 days ago shd ~177.207.103.66 29 days ago aaaa ~42.191.40.97 29 days ago aaaaaaaa ~42.191.40.97 29 days ago jjjjj ~201.59.73.69 29 days ago hello ~31.215.241.143 29 days ago okok ~181.126.132.197 29 days ago eqwewq ~177.107.17.93 29 days ago awefawe ~103.238.71.112 29 days ago ghjghj ~24.133.102.47 29 days ago 2323 ~217.110.132.66 29 days ago fff ~217.110.132.66 29 days ago test ~77.21.84.29 29 days ago Hhh ~92.35.72.37 29 days ago asfd ~12.119.196.190 28 days ago test ~65.49.87.128 28 days ago ~65.49.87.128 28 days ago Alef ~191.7.149.111 28 days ago aa ~121.200.5.13 28 days ago ,,, ~71.38.175.60 28 days ago hi ~187.190.173.234 28 days ago Hello from india ~47.247.130.227 28 days ago Hi from Spain ~81.45.85.121 28 days ago All good? ~81.45.85.121 28 days ago Hello ! ~109.220.173.119 28 days ago What is this? ~81.165.102.37 28 days ago sup ~147.78.29.175 27 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago sadsadsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago asdsad ~120.188.82.165 27 days ago hey ~24.207.28.193 27 days ago some ~24.124.62.21 27 days ago hello ~177.247.114.91 27 days ago knkjkj ~177.247.114.91 27 days ago dfg ~161.230.80.129 27 days ago asd ~126.25.150.45 27 days ago hello ~67.190.190.7 27 days ago asdasdsa ~176.117.190.22 27 days ago dasdsadas ~176.117.190.22 27 days ago Test ~126.140.177.6 27 days ago 的 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago 的收到的 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago 收到 ~163.125.33.187 27 days ago Мда ~45.83.91.26 27 days ago ~189.6.241.5 26 days ago Tttt ~189.6.241.5 26 days ago Nflfnfb ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago Nfkfbfk ~188.126.167.188 26 days ago sdf ~178.120.58.44 26 days ago Lenfgb ~86.242.133.89 26 days ago Jenfbfbnfkf ~86.242.133.89 26 days ago sfgfgfsgfs ~76.176.124.215 26 days ago 水电费费 ~139.162.82.216 25 days ago Hi ~75.179.151.184 25 days ago test ~168.121.98.98 25 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago asd ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago test ~81.18.93.34 25 days ago Check ~87.110.18.136 25 days ago njhgzgz ~91.64.107.184 25 days ago Hey ~45.37.182.35 24 days ago Hello ~73.66.22.255 24 days ago ~77.181.53.225 23 days ago ~77.181.53.225 23 days ago foooo ~72.48.211.189 23 days ago test ~17.150.217.239 23 days ago asdasd ~189.4.79.33 23 days ago hey ~65.92.9.186 23 days ago hows it going? ~65.92.9.186 23 days ago asd ~167.57.3.74 23 days ago q32 ~167.57.3.74 23 days ago test ~108.31.220.92 23 days ago Test ~217.252.68.61 23 days ago Hi ~37.120.201.120 23 days ago af ~46.227.107.66 23 days ago t ~46.7.251.50 23 days ago asdasdasd ~100.11.129.208 22 days ago What? ~100.11.129.208 22 days ago :P ~178.27.174.86 22 days ago Cool ~72.182.112.131 22 days ago a ~89.238.150.30 22 days ago ioiouiou ~88.97.101.30 22 days ago asdasd ~207.96.96.249 22 days ago Hey ~189.207.103.83 21 days ago g ~24.56.25.173 21 days ago q ~70.187.22.123 21 days ago cock ~188.26.60.10 21 days ago Ella ~73.30.185.91 21 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago hi ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago hello ~119.46.57.98 21 days ago test ~65.79.128.224 21 days ago Furz ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Hhuu ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Reaaaaative but slow ~46.114.38.137 21 days ago Lol ~85.149.17.71 21 days ago test ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago test again ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago Uh it doesn't seem slow at all to me ~47.41.24.33 20 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 20 days ago hi ~76.64.76.63 20 days ago Fast ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago As ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago Tw ~50.92.169.4 20 days ago Nice ~46.44.148.89 20 days ago sdfnjtj ~196.119.239.226 19 days ago this is only a test ~74.132.145.7 18 days ago re ~95.91.236.53 18 days ago hello ~66.151.147.212 18 days ago this is blue ~24.61.61.221 18 days ago hi ~86.91.136.206 18 days ago ~86.91.136.206 18 days ago ghjk ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago ~82.154.163.165 18 days ago efds ~177.79.105.33 18 days ago hola ~167.249.216.118 18 days ago rojo ~167.249.216.118 18 days ago Hey ~166.137.244.20 18 days ago ~166.137.244.20 18 days ago 987789 ~186.23.95.244 18 days ago df ~95.161.221.91 18 days ago Is this interesting ~222.153.112.100 18 days ago dsf ~71.212.112.90 18 days ago sdsd ~24.34.191.170 18 days ago sdfsdfsdf ~50.121.84.32 18 days ago hello \ ~45.125.171.248 18 days ago what's up ~45.125.171.248 18 days ago Yo! ~100.16.238.164 18 days ago Hey ~109.118.93.91 18 days ago lkj ~86.123.159.100 18 days ago wa ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago w ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago ~82.207.236.107 18 days ago Lol ~24.130.193.226 18 days ago ~24.130.193.226 18 days ago ~95.60.67.160 17 days ago f ~95.60.67.160 17 days ago hi ~100.14.75.61 17 days ago kjj ~186.189.239.38 17 days ago Hi there. ~166.137.139.63 17 days ago Yuui ~8.40.140.109 17 days ago Yuhnh ~8.40.140.109 17 days ago jojo ~80.187.113.189 16 days ago test ~137.97.107.4 16 days ago jo joo jo ~190.18.144.44 16 days ago Hi! ~87.3.14.220 16 days ago ll ~212.109.29.167 16 days ago Jdhe ~70.29.37.38 15 days ago yo ~73.158.98.90 15 days ago test ~107.12.63.191 15 days ago hi ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ~186.13.140.18 15 days ago ??? ~136.32.105.57 15 days ago hello ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago dfgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdfgg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago dfgsdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago sdgdg ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago fgghf ~119.18.3.132 15 days ago hghghg ~46.1.119.144 15 days ago jjhhhhghb ~46.1.119.144 15 days ago wow man ~117.200.15.117 15 days ago hahaha ~122.163.204.236 15 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 15 days ago sdf ~24.148.74.93 15 days ago vvvvvvvvc ~187.247.165.13 14 days ago asdf ~72.220.27.104 14 days ago lolo ~152.115.180.242 14 days ago mnmnmn ~62.57.30.152 14 days ago asdfijsadf ~76.217.55.15 13 days ago Hi ~193.28.37.161 13 days ago Hello ~193.28.37.161 13 days ago hoge ~219.59.7.246 13 days ago Yo ~78.194.46.129 13 days ago hey ~213.233.155.135 13 days ago Sup ~174.116.101.18 12 days ago mkmlkm ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago lkjnljk ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago dcs ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago adsf ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago dxadsx ~70.181.102.97 12 days ago red ~177.97.20.202 12 days ago asdasd ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago yers ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago yarp! ~86.23.76.215 12 days ago Hi joe are out doing ~75.88.238.147 12 days ago gren ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago test ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago cow ~216.248.84.117 11 days ago horse ~50.82.90.198 11 days ago ff ~95.161.221.91 11 days ago dsf ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago sdcsd ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago adsc ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago SD ~70.181.102.97 11 days ago hello ~60.231.224.166 11 days ago aaa ~77.237.10.215 11 days ago dfvdfv ~217.131.78.203 11 days ago Hello ~64.46.19.119 10 days ago ~64.46.19.119 10 days ago test ~151.112.127.104 10 days ago Chat ~93.5.100.117 10 days ago ~93.5.100.117 10 days ago chat ~24.232.114.66 10 days ago badum ~77.254.226.66 10 days ago Ok ~93.22.149.190 10 days ago this is a test ~47.186.250.114 10 days ago wohoo! ~83.28.235.250 9 days ago helloo ~213.77.149.107 9 days ago test ~131.100.95.53 9 days ago slow but exciting ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago really slow... ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago can be useful in some cases ~178.120.20.79 9 days ago oji ~109.195.147.170 9 days ago oi ~188.151.127.100 9 days ago Ping ~71.220.58.228 8 days ago ;m; ~88.119.50.35 8 days ago lkjhlk ~187.243.96.191 8 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 7 days ago Hello ~103.225.149.49 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago dsf ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago wqesdfsdfdfds ~103.117.162.202 7 days ago Hello world! ~49.207.203.213 7 days ago Hi ~49.156.156.74 7 days ago Hi ~99.149.120.190 7 days ago test 123 ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago xxx ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 7 days ago TEST ~46.196.78.25 7 days ago qqqqqq ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago vbvbvbvb ~46.1.119.144 7 days ago hola ~49.145.174.21 7 days ago hello ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago Hi there ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago here we are ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago yes ~217.131.85.78 7 days ago hi ~24.160.101.4 6 days ago gfd ~67.170.41.140 6 days ago b00m ~72.226.65.161 6 days ago Hi ~157.37.167.7 6 days ago ~51.36.17.205 6 days ago test ~51.36.17.205 6 days ago jojoj ~86.99.149.156 6 days ago zhid id s zrsdz ~83.175.113.174 6 days ago sasas ~109.166.138.238 5 days ago wqwqwqwqwqwqwq ~109.166.138.238 5 days ago <h1>Hackerman</h1> ~62.23.191.42 5 days ago Mein Glied schwitzt. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Die Wurst streifte meinen Sack. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Mein Urin ist ocker. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Ich stuhle mich nun vor Freude ein! ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Realtime? ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Hallo?! ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago OK, die kleiner Verzögerung kann man verkraften. ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Ich korrigiere: "die kleine Verzögerung" ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago Wieso ist der verdammte Lüfter von meinem MacBook Pro am Laufen? ~95.90.252.209 4 days ago go monr ~113.118.169.172 4 days ago kind of slow? ~113.118.169.172 4 days ago h ~94.246.131.106 4 days ago lkjsdf ~81.250.227.245 4 days ago 6 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 561651 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 263 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago 626 ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago fes dwa ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago a ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago daw ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago adwadaw dwad wa d wa da w ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago <h1>aa</h1> ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Communism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search For other uses, see Communism (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Communalism or Communitarianism. Part of a series on Communism Concepts [hide] Anti-capitalism Class conflict Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Commune Commune (model of government) Communist society Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Market abolitionism Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World communism World revolution Aspects [hide] Communist party List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist parties Communist revolution Communist state Communist symbolism History of communism Variants [hide] Anarchist Marxism Leninist Libertarian Pre-Marxist Utopian Primitive Religious Christian Internationals [hide] Communist League First International Second International Third International Fourth International People [hide] More Campanella Babeuf Owen Weitling Marx Engels Reclus Kropotkin Malatesta Luxemburg Zetkin Liebknecht Lenin Berkman Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Trotsky Makhno Kollontai Gramsci Stalin Durruti Pannekoek Pankhurst Reich Togliatti Ho Mao Tito Camus Marcuse Sartre Hoxha Beauvoir Guevara Pasolini Kim Berlinguer Castoriadis Debord Bookchin Castro Marcos By region [hide] Colombia France India Kerala Korea Nepal Peru Philippines Poland Russia Sumatra Vietnam Anthem [hide] "The Internationale" Related topics [hide] Anarchism Social Anti-communism Anti anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Capitalism Communitarianism Crimes against humanity under communist regimes (Mass killings) Critical theory Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics Old Left New Left Marx's theory of alienation National communism Romania Red Scare Revolution Social democracy Socialism Democratic Libertarian Revolutionary Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Trade union War communism Worker cooperative Symbol-hammer-and-sickle.svg Communism portal vte Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal')[1][2] is a philosophical, social, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarcho-communism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both, all of which share the analysis that the current order of society stems from capitalism, its economic system and mode of production; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society;[7] and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution. The two classes are the proletariat (the working class), who make up the majority of the population within society, and who must work to survive; and the bourgeoisie (the capitalist class)—a small minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production which is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism. Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s.[8] While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism,[1][a][9] some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism,[10][11][12] or a non-planned administrative or command economy.[13][14] Contents 1 Etymology 1.1 Communism and socialism 2 History 2.1 Early communism 2.2 Soviet Union 2.3 Cold War 2.4 Dissolution of the Soviet Union 2.5 Post-Soviet communism 3 Marxist communism 3.1 Marxist concepts 3.1.1 Class conflict and historical materialism 3.1.2 Marxian economics 3.1.3 Socialization versus nationalization 3.2 Leninist communism 3.2.1 Marxism–Leninism 3.2.1.1 Stalinism 3.2.1.2 Maoism 3.2.2 Trotskyism 3.2.3 Eurocommunism 3.3 Libertarian Marxism 3.3.1 Council communism 3.3.2 Left communism 4 Non-Marxist communism 4.1 Anarcho-communism 4.2 Christian communism 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 7.1 Quotes 7.2 Citations 7.3 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links Etymology Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme.[15] Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, condition, action, or doctrine. Communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community". This semantic constitution has led to numerous usages of the word in its evolution. Prior to becoming associated with its more modern conception of an economic and political organization, the term was initially used in designating various social situations. The term ultimately came to be primarily associated with Marxism, most specifically embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism. One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785, in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste ("communist author").[16] Years later, Restif would go on to use the term frequently in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government.[17] John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840.[15] Communism and socialism Since the 1840s, communism has usually been distinguished from socialism. The modern definition and usage of the latter would be settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term over the words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period.[18] An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production, whereas the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods).[19] By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism which had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for the former. It was not until 1917, with the Bolshevik Revolution, that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.[20] A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically refer to socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later in the 1920s of Marxism–Leninism,[21] although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.[18] Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the cultural attitude of adherents and opponents towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too phonetically similar to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.[22] Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany.[23] While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat.[24] According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".[25] History Main article: History of communism Early communism See also: Religious communism, Scientific socialism, and Utopian socialism According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece.[26] The 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia (modern-day Iran) has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy; for criticizing the institution of private property; and for striving to create an egalitarian society.[27][28] At one time or another, various small communist communities existed, generally under the inspiration of Scripture.[29] In the medieval Christian Church, some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Thomas More, whose Utopia portrayed a society based on common ownership of property Communist thought has also been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his 1516 treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the Diggers advocated the abolition of private ownership of land.[30] In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism,[31] Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War (especially the Diggers) espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and often hostile.[31] Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France. Following the upheaval of the French Revolution, communism later emerged as a political doctrine.[32] In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. Unlike many previous communist communities, they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis.[33] Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony, Indiana, in 1825; and Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm in 1841.[1] In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe. As the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were Karl Marx and his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto.[1] Soviet Union Main article: Communist state The Russian SFSR as a part of the Soviet Union in 1922 The 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks which was the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position. The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets in which the Bolsheviks had a majority.[34][35][36] The event generated a great deal of practical and theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous, largely illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated that Russia might be able to skip the stage of bourgeois rule.[37] The moderate Mensheviks (minority) opposed Lenin's Bolsheviks (majority) plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more fully developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace, bread and land" which tapped into the massive public desire for an end to Russian involvement in World War I, the peasants' demand for land reform and popular support for the soviets.[38] The Soviet Union was established in 1922. Following Lenin's democratic centralism, the Leninist parties were organized on a hierarchical basis, with active cells of members as the broad base. They were made up only of elite cadres approved by higher members of the party as being reliable and completely subject to party discipline.[39] In the Moscow Trials, many old Bolsheviks who had played prominent roles during the Russian Revolution of 1917 or in Lenin's Soviet government afterwards, including Lev Kamenev, Grigory Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov and Nikolai Bukharin, were accused, pleaded guilty of conspiracy against the Soviet Union, and were executed.[40] Cold War Main article: Cold War Countries of the world now (red) or previously (orange) having nominally Marxist–Leninist communist governments Its leading role in World War II saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as an industrialized superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Josip Broz Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II.[41] Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[42] Dissolution of the Soviet Union Main article: Dissolution of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union was dissolved on December 26, 1991. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[43] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States, although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do it at all. On the previous day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev (the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union) resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers, including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes, to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.[44] Previously from August to December 1991, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had seceded from the union. The week before the union's formal dissolution, eleven republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, formally establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist.[45][46] Post-Soviet communism See also: List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation The Vietnamese Communist Party's poster in Hanoi At present, states controlled by Marxist–Leninist parties under a single-party system include the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea currently refers to its leading ideology as Juche which is portrayed as a development of Marxism–Leninism. Communist parties, or their descendant parties, remain politically important in several other countries. The South African Communist Party is a partner in the African National Congress-led government. In India as of March 2018, communists lead the government of Kerala. In Nepal, communists hold a majority in the parliament.[47] The Communist Party of Brazil was a part of the parliamentary coalition led by the ruling democratic socialist Workers' Party until August 2016. The People's Republic of China has reassessed many aspects of the Maoist legacy, and along with Laos, Vietnam and to a lesser degree Cuba, has decentralized state control of the economy in order to stimulate growth. Chinese economic reforms were started in 1978 under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, and since then China has managed to bring down the poverty rate from 53% in the Mao era to just 6% in 2001.[48] These reforms are sometimes described by outside commentators as a regression to capitalism, but the communist parties describe it as a necessary adjustment to existing realities in the post-Soviet world in order to maximize industrial productive capacity. In these countries, the land is a universal public monopoly administered by the state and so are natural resources and vital industries and services. The public sector is the dominant sector in these economies and the state plays a central role in coordinating economic development. Marxist communism Main article: Marxism See also: List of communist ideologies and Marxist schools of thought A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxism uses a materialist methodology, referred to by Marx and Engels as the materialist conception of history and now better known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social and political change. First developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the mid-19th century, it has been the foremost ideology of the communist movement. Marxism does not lay out a blueprint of a communist society per se and it merely presents an analysis that concludes the means by which its implementation will be triggered, distinguishing its fundamental characteristics as based on the derivation of real-life conditions. Marxism considers itself to be the embodiment of scientific socialism, but it does not model an ideal society based on the design of intellectuals, whereby communism is seen as a state of affairs to be established based on any intelligent design. Rather, it is a non-idealist attempt at the understanding of material history and society, whereby communism is the expression of a real movement, with parameters that are derived from actual life.[49] According to Marxist theory, class conflict arises in capitalist societies due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit. This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use. As the productive forces continued to advance, socialism would be transformed into a communist society, i.e. a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and distribution based on one's needs. While it originates from the works of Marx and Engels, Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.[50] Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts which has then led to contradictory conclusions.[51] However, there is a movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.[52] Marxism–Leninism and its offshoots are the most well-known of these and have been a driving force in international relations during most of the 20th century.[53] Classical Marxism is the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Marx and Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.[54] Orthodox Marxism is the body of Marxism thought that emerged after the death of Marx and which became the official philosophy of the socialist movement as represented in the Second International until World War I in 1914. Orthodox Marxism aims to simplify, codify and systematize Marxist method and theory by clarifying the perceived ambiguities and contradictions of classical Marxism. The philosophy of orthodox Marxism includes the understanding that material development (advances in technology in the productive forces) is the primary agent of change in the structure of society and of human social relations and that social systems and their relations (e.g. feudalism, capitalism and so on) become contradictory and inefficient as the productive forces develop, which results in some form of social revolution arising in response to the mounting contradictions. This revolutionary change is the vehicle for fundamental society-wide changes and ultimately leads to the emergence of new economic systems.[55] As a term, orthodox Marxism represents the methods of historical materialism and of dialectical materialism and not the normative aspects inherent to classical Marxism, without implying dogmatic adherence to the results of Marx's investigations.[56] Marxist concepts Class conflict and historical materialism Main articles: Class conflict and Historical materialism At the root of Marxism is historical materialism, the materialist conception of history which holds that the key characteristic of economic systems through history has been the mode of production and that the change between modes of production has been triggered by class struggle. According to this analysis, the Industrial Revolution ushered the world into capitalism as a new mode of production. Before capitalism, certain working classes had ownership of instruments utilized in production. However, because machinery was much more efficient, this property became worthless and the mass majority of workers could only survive by selling their labor to make use of someone else's machinery, thus making someone else profit. Accordingly, capitalism divided the world between two major classes, namely that of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.[57] These classes are directly antagonistic as the latter possesses private ownership of the means of production, earning profit via the surplus value generated by the proletariat, who have no ownership of the means of production and therefore no option but to sell its labor to the bourgeoisie. According to the materialist conception of history, it is through the furtherance of its own material interests that the rising bourgeoisie within feudalism captured power and abolished, of all relations of private property, only the feudal privilege, thereby taking the feudal ruling class out of existence. This was another key element behind the consolidation of capitalism as the new mode of production, the final expression of class and property relations that has led to a massive expansion of production. It is only in capitalism that private property in itself can be abolished.[58] Similarly, the proletariat would capture political power, abolish bourgeois property through the common ownership of the means of production, therefore abolishing the bourgeoisie, ultimately abolishing the proletariat itself and ushering the world into communism as a new mode of production. In between capitalism and communism, there is the dictatorship of the proletariat, a democratic state where the whole of the public authority is elected and recallable under the basis of universal suffrage.[59] It is the defeat of the bourgeois state, but not yet of the capitalist mode of production and at the same time the only element which places into the realm of possibility moving on from this mode of production. ~200.194.249.126 3 days ago Hello ~198.53.11.63 3 days ago Communism is a plague on humanity. ~98.148.86.214 3 days ago No voting. No free press. No freedom of assembly. No freedom except the binary choice of doing what you're told or being jailed/killed. But it's great, I suppose, if you're a party member at the top... ~98.148.86.214 3 days ago ads ~24.4.129.182 3 days ago Just rambling, that's the freedom. ~178.113.78.214 3 days ago check out the blue pill, ahem channel ~178.113.78.214 3 days ago pokpoi ~88.124.78.58 2 days ago ~24.4.129.182 2 days ago hello ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago hello ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago ~219.248.235.237 2 days ago asdfa ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago asdfa ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago Fpp ~49.207.193.8 1 day ago testing ~187.204.67.11 1 day ago jkjk ~62.57.30.152 about 17 hours ago ffff ~62.57.30.152 about 17 hours ago ha ~148.56.60.123 about 14 hours ago test ~177.207.105.238 about 13 hours ago good ~99.229.4.191 about 8 hours ago asdf ~73.15.211.208 about 6 hours ago slow ~73.15.211.208 about 6 hours ago njkln ~187.34.146.209 about 2 hours ago n,mn ~187.34.146.209 about 2 hours ago xxxxx ~me less than a minute ago 1 ~me less than a minute ago 1 ~me less than a minute ago Type your message... Code (117 LOC) ERB (41 LOC) JavaScript (48 LOC) Ruby (28 LOC) © 2019 Nathan Hopkins, All Rights Reserved Fork this Project Session ID: 4025134adec7aef2ab684511a6654d2f ~27.71.207.82 2 days ago test etst tes ~82.67.108.119 2 days ago fddgfg ~85.201.197.13 2 days ago wait ~85.0.208.27 2 days ago ok ~85.0.208.27 2 days ago red ~5.58.22.27 1 day ago afaifkifka ~42.191.57.67 1 day ago testing 123 ~193.37.33.53 1 day ago but why testing 123 ~42.191.57.67 1 day ago 23 123 1 ~116.74.32.185 1 day ago eeeee ~213.217.216.73 about 23 hours ago kjljklkj ~98.34.41.39 about 7 hours ago oh hai! ~95.147.235.121 about 7 hours ago Type your message... Code (117 LOC) ERB (41 LOC) JavaScript (48 LOC) Ruby (28 LOC) © 2019 Nathan Hopkins, All Rights Reserved Fork this Project Session ID: c4ae3a607577224cd24d54da19c83edc ~2.142.106.106 about 2 months ago
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~103.215.192.64 27 days ago
asdasd ~103.215.192.64 27 days ago
asasas ~103.215.192.64 27 days ago
~61.220.179.166 27 days ago
s ~61.220.179.166 27 days ago
dfghj ~82.69.114.65 27 days ago
asdadasdasdasdasd ~125.227.50.20 27 days ago
asdadasdasdasdasd ~125.227.50.20 27 days ago
~109.252.80.195 27 days ago
test ~83.240.38.71 27 days ago
d ~80.127.99.58 26 days ago
heyooo ~68.173.47.102 26 days ago
test ~131.100.95.60 26 days ago
hey ho ~82.102.27.204 26 days ago
yeah ~82.102.27.204 26 days ago
kkk ~212.58.102.18 26 days ago
kkk ~212.58.102.18 26 days ago
kkk ~212.58.102.18 26 days ago
Hello from Norway ~85.166.36.128 26 days ago
sdfasdf ~130.105.243.116 25 days ago
why this slow ~130.105.243.116 25 days ago
My name is john ~76.95.49.215 24 days ago
Wow this is slow ~76.95.49.215 24 days ago
test ~173.183.158.24 24 days ago
this is slow ~173.183.158.24 24 days ago
test again ~173.183.158.24 24 days ago
fasfasadf ~181.229.142.77 24 days ago
this is awesome ~181.229.142.77 24 days ago
42 ~87.128.80.229 24 days ago
wenas ~181.61.35.94 23 days ago
w ~200.194.249.146 23 days ago
~102.223.104.35 23 days ago
~102.223.104.35 23 days ago
asfsf ~108.35.255.156 23 days ago
asfsf ~108.35.255.156 23 days ago
~108.35.255.156 23 days ago
ewr er wrew ~27.71.207.82 23 days ago
342432 ~27.71.207.82 23 days ago
kjhgf ~175.45.149.50 23 days ago
aze ~90.76.59.145 23 days ago
hm ~90.76.59.145 23 days ago
cool ~46.7.106.98 23 days ago
fg ~95.176.45.63 22 days ago
~95.176.45.63 22 days ago
ha ~109.255.54.28 22 days ago
waa ~109.255.54.28 22 days ago
hey dude ~184.22.235.58 22 days ago
hey dude ~184.22.235.58 22 days ago
teste ~170.80.70.181 22 days ago
Poppy ~166.170.15.109 22 days ago
hallo ~89.245.192.70 22 days ago
ghjghghj ~89.245.192.70 22 days ago
hb ~2.226.165.206 22 days ago
<script> echo("hello nigis") <script> ~81.45.85.121 21 days ago
~81.45.85.121 21 days ago
~81.45.85.121 21 days ago
123 ~116.48.233.100 21 days ago
llçlçllçklçkçlk ~89.154.95.31 21 days ago
sdfsdf ~93.159.11.70 21 days ago
sdfsdf ~93.159.11.70 21 days ago
sdfsdf ~93.159.11.70 21 days ago
hi ~65.7.81.197 20 days ago
Ghjh ~163.158.245.78 20 days ago
Ghjh ~163.158.245.78 20 days ago
3567 ~163.158.245.78 20 days ago
dsfjsdhfjksdhkfdg ~83.54.233.210 20 days ago
dsfjsdhfjksdhkfdg ~83.54.233.210 20 days ago
dfsdfsd ~83.54.233.210 20 days ago
I dunno ~24.11.105.40 19 days ago
I dunno ~24.11.105.40 19 days ago
hola ~186.144.69.147 19 days ago
Que ~65.79.128.224 19 days ago
Que ~65.79.128.224 19 days ago
Lag ~65.79.128.224 19 days ago
foo ~88.225.235.176 19 days ago
fsdfsdf ~178.26.169.14 18 days ago
fsdfsdf ~178.26.169.14 18 days ago
hello ~196.181.10.218 18 days ago
hello ~196.181.10.218 18 days ago
test ~37.201.169.8 18 days ago
bbbb ~86.184.83.188 18 days ago
Test ~190.140.102.139 18 days ago
~190.140.102.139 18 days ago
Test 2 ~190.140.102.139 18 days ago
jkjkj ~103.22.132.34 18 days ago
hi ~49.230.67.170 18 days ago
Jaha ~37.219.164.79 17 days ago
Jaha ~37.219.164.79 17 days ago
Hola ~82.137.14.45 17 days ago
Hola ~82.137.14.45 17 days ago
Hola ~189.153.75.55 17 days ago
haha ~177.246.192.7 16 days ago
hi ~74.90.144.208 16 days ago
whats up ~74.90.144.208 16 days ago
dasd ~179.9.253.250 16 days ago
dasd ~179.9.253.250 16 days ago
no ~43.245.86.99 16 days ago
cool! ~83.149.44.161 16 days ago
asd ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
asd ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
asdd ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
hello ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
hello ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
jello ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
jello ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
jello ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
e ~45.12.223.244 15 days ago
eee ~93.227.191.250 15 days ago
ss ~80.218.112.47 15 days ago
sqdqsd sqdqsd ~89.2.75.123 15 days ago
sqdqsd sqdqsd ~89.2.75.123 15 days ago
sqdqsd sqdqsd ~89.2.75.123 15 days ago
sqdqsd sqdqsd ~89.2.75.123 15 days ago
~90.188.113.1 15 days ago
gh ~90.188.113.1 15 days ago
gh ~90.188.113.1 15 days ago
blah blah ~47.187.99.210 14 days ago
gjgh ~125.234.0.242 14 days ago
hey hey ~41.60.91.155 13 days ago
a ~80.129.176.137 13 days ago
ghf ~200.100.103.59 13 days ago
wassup ~105.163.91.67 13 days ago
holaaa ~181.121.199.248 12 days ago
why ~110.171.150.36 12 days ago
jd0cc ~110.171.150.36 12 days ago
test ~126.15.101.166 12 days ago
test ~84.72.40.143 12 days ago
Testing ~181.63.110.176 11 days ago
5 ~181.63.110.176 11 days ago
hmm I think this takes a while because its redoing the whole chat history? ~181.63.110.176 11 days ago
hm. Well that seems inefficient! ~65.79.128.224 11 days ago
Hello world ~173.56.242.28 10 days ago
x\zx\zx ~181.166.106.59 10 days ago
Hi ~189.177.98.155 10 days ago
Hi ~189.177.98.155 10 days ago
Humm.... ~189.177.98.155 10 days ago
this is a thing ~91.160.68.80 9 days ago
Going to learn ruby just for Stimulus Reflex ~91.160.68.80 9 days ago
Test ~89.144.192.95 9 days ago
hi ~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
hi ~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
4565 ~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
Hey ~85.245.242.26 9 days ago
awd ~85.245.242.26 9 days ago
helo ~217.131.84.160 8 days ago
hi ~79.106.254.3 8 days ago
Hi ~37.201.195.117 8 days ago
Hey ~39.50.192.130 8 days ago
Hey ~39.50.192.130 8 days ago
hello ~39.50.192.130 8 days ago
herro ~47.61.96.44 8 days ago
herro ~47.61.96.44 8 days ago
dfd ~104.163.188.227 8 days ago
~104.163.188.227 8 days ago
Guru ~49.36.17.198 8 days ago
hello ~189.159.1.12 8 days ago
fff ~187.190.178.211 8 days ago
fff ~187.190.178.211 8 days ago
bhenchod ~49.32.23.136 8 days ago
Hello! ~156.213.235.115 8 days ago
Hello! ~156.213.235.115 8 days ago
Enne ~201.82.34.252 8 days ago
Enne ~201.82.34.252 8 days ago
Este ~201.82.34.252 8 days ago
Jdjdjje ~201.82.34.252 8 days ago
Jdjdjje ~201.82.34.252 8 days ago
Ssd ~183.171.185.107 8 days ago
Ssd ~183.171.185.107 8 days ago
Hello ~192.0.230.157 8 days ago
~192.0.230.157 8 days ago
What? ~172.103.160.124 8 days ago
What? ~172.103.160.124 8 days ago
What? ~172.103.160.124 8 days ago
What? ~172.103.160.124 8 days ago
test ~86.92.135.175 8 days ago
test1123 ~86.92.135.175 8 days ago
Hello ~111.125.230.46 8 days ago
hmm ~82.251.75.121 8 days ago
hmm ~82.251.75.121 8 days ago
too slow ~82.251.75.121 8 days ago
dwqdqwdqw ~176.117.39.63 8 days ago
dwqdqwdqw ~176.117.39.63 8 days ago
qdqwdqwdwq ~176.117.39.63 8 days ago
qwdqwdqwd ~176.117.39.63 8 days ago
qqqqqqq ~176.117.39.63 8 days ago
Hips of... ~219.88.232.231 8 days ago
Hips of... ~219.88.232.231 8 days ago
Hips of... ~219.88.232.231 8 days ago
~79.106.254.0 8 days ago
~79.106.254.0 8 days ago
hello ~98.252.195.93 8 days ago
hmm ~189.121.203.145 8 days ago
ok ~189.121.203.145 8 days ago
Test ~47.205.242.222 8 days ago
Test ~47.205.242.222 8 days ago
1,2 ~47.205.242.222 8 days ago
vcvcx ~82.64.213.23 8 days ago
hey ~95.169.229.196 8 days ago
(_)_):::::::::::D ~95.169.229.196 8 days ago
fgdfgdfgdfgdfg ~5.63.47.92 8 days ago
ffff ~181.63.110.176 7 days ago
YEAH ~91.160.136.58 7 days ago
hi ~67.177.46.230 7 days ago
~67.177.46.230 7 days ago
tedst ~51.255.172.247 7 days ago
~51.255.172.247 7 days ago
~51.255.172.247 7 days ago
Hola ~64.52.27.184 7 days ago
Cool! ~64.52.27.184 7 days ago
Test ~64.52.27.184 7 days ago
TEST ~188.36.21.140 7 days ago
Another test ~188.36.21.140 7 days ago
new message ~188.36.21.140 7 days ago
Msg ~181.63.110.176 7 days ago
Msg ~181.63.110.176 7 days ago
l ~181.63.110.176 7 days ago
Hallo ~173.70.141.244 7 days ago
l ~92.247.71.154 7 days ago
l ~92.247.71.154 7 days ago
lkm ~92.247.71.154 7 days ago
IPOIPOIPI ~92.175.212.41 7 days ago
kkmkmk ~78.137.9.40 7 days ago
ok ~105.4.3.160 6 days ago
ok ~105.4.3.160 6 days ago
hello ~45.73.37.158 6 days ago
yo! ~82.27.147.114 6 days ago
g ~217.149.254.132 6 days ago
gf ~217.149.254.132 6 days ago
test ~24.243.64.44 6 days ago
~99.23.33.14 6 days ago
qweqweqwe ~94.224.212.175 6 days ago
ee qwe ~121.150.29.146 6 days ago
ee qwe ~121.150.29.146 6 days ago
ghhh ~181.63.110.176 6 days ago
LOL SO SLOW ~144.121.100.66 6 days ago
asd ~160.79.169.3 6 days ago
asd ~160.79.169.3 6 days ago
hjmhjkhj ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
hjmhjkhjhjkhjk ~81.100.26.49 6 days ago
fdsfsd ~189.76.244.1 6 days ago
fdsfsd ~189.76.244.1 6 days ago
fdsfsd ~189.76.244.1 6 days ago
fdsfsd ~189.76.244.1 6 days ago
fsdf ~189.76.244.1 6 days ago
Hello, any faster? ~97.83.27.191 6 days ago
Is it slow? ~95.90.178.241 6 days ago
Is it slow? ~95.90.178.241 6 days ago
Hm yes, really slow and buggy ~95.90.178.241 6 days ago
test ~100.15.241.23 6 days ago
jhjhj ~76.183.237.159 6 days ago
sass ~76.183.237.159 6 days ago
test ~159.2.77.175 6 days ago
adadsasd ~189.208.241.106 6 days ago
dsadsad ~66.41.35.55 6 days ago
Wut did you say ~104.182.207.94 6 days ago
Jkkk ~216.180.65.13 6 days ago
hoge ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
hoge ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
fuga ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
piyo ~217.178.19.21 6 days ago
wat ~203.122.212.202 6 days ago
what is my ip ~80.208.0.10 6 days ago
123123 ~212.101.9.155 6 days ago
123123 ~212.101.9.155 6 days ago
123123123 ~212.101.9.155 6 days ago
test ~91.243.213.23 6 days ago
hhh ~78.97.161.188 6 days ago
ggg ~181.63.110.176 5 days ago
b ~181.63.110.176 5 days ago
~109.77.224.213 5 days ago
dfrss ~109.77.224.213 5 days ago
dfrss ~109.77.224.213 5 days ago
~109.77.224.213 5 days ago
~109.77.224.213 5 days ago
a ~142.162.14.100 5 days ago
yeah!! ~176.166.170.165 5 days ago
asdf ~217.217.220.10 5 days ago
This is super slow, because someone pasted like a whole book in here… ~217.217.220.10 5 days ago
lkmnlnl ~165.225.61.37 5 days ago
vweewvew ~86.135.43.36 5 days ago
~86.135.43.36 5 days ago
What ~104.162.119.38 5 days ago
sadf ~76.97.10.208 5 days ago
C ~91.105.23.145 5 days ago
B ~91.105.23.145 5 days ago
Hola! ~209.141.122.154 5 days ago
hi ~82.132.227.51 5 days ago
lel ~82.132.227.51 5 days ago
this ~67.69.69.25 5 days ago
Hhhhhhhh ~120.29.112.238 5 days ago
Rails is the best ~91.105.27.228 5 days ago
nice ~77.172.44.116 5 days ago
Tetqwe ~37.120.142.237 4 days ago
~37.120.142.237 4 days ago
wq ~37.120.142.237 4 days ago
~108.68.124.161 4 days ago
ddjdjjd ~41.174.167.206 4 days ago
ddjdjjd ~41.174.167.206 4 days ago
ddjdjjd ~41.174.167.206 4 days ago
ddjdjjd ~41.174.167.206 4 days ago
xdddddd ~41.174.167.206 4 days ago
hi ~99.251.139.216 4 days ago
Anyone there? ~99.251.139.216 4 days ago
This isn't so fast as they say 😢 ~99.251.139.216 4 days ago
It seems pretty good to me. ~73.51.226.83 4 days ago
Hello ~173.240.251.80 4 days ago
Oko ~82.1.134.74 4 days ago
Yi ~193.82.237.106 4 days ago
Yi ~193.82.237.106 4 days ago
hhh ~103.200.115.44 4 days ago
hhh ~103.200.115.44 4 days ago
Salut ~80.15.1.181 4 days ago
Salut ~80.15.1.181 4 days ago
Salut ~80.15.1.181 4 days ago
Salut ~80.15.1.181 4 days ago
~80.15.1.181 4 days ago
xdffds ~5.203.225.96 4 days ago
xdffds ~5.203.225.96 4 days ago
aaaa ~5.203.225.96 4 days ago
a ~178.236.85.11 4 days ago
2341234 ~188.186.192.199 4 days ago
34523453 ~188.186.192.199 4 days ago
jeocmemkde ~151.48.47.57 3 days ago
Гкокг ~89.232.118.206 3 days ago
Гкокг ~89.232.118.206 3 days ago
Let's see! ~122.179.21.223 3 days ago
Привет ~188.164.25.34 3 days ago
Hikj ~90.137.139.88 3 days ago
Hikj ~90.137.139.88 3 days ago
~90.137.139.88 3 days ago
asdfasdf ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
asdfasdf ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
asdfasdf ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
asdfasdf ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
asdfasdf ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
f ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
f ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
1q1q1q1q1q1q ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
1q1q1q1q1q1q ~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
~186.154.106.35 3 days ago
z ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
g ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
ss ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
meow ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
Takes ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
test ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
in front ~181.63.110.176 3 days ago
hey ~5.48.84.187 3 days ago
hey ~5.48.84.187 3 days ago
BOO! ~71.178.202.108 3 days ago
helllllo ~67.163.85.75 3 days ago
whats up? ~191.6.121.96 3 days ago
asdasd ~189.79.76.139 3 days ago
io ~201.82.132.126 3 days ago
yo ~201.82.132.126 3 days ago
Test ~213.245.61.58 3 days ago
reere ~82.4.212.66 3 days ago
rererere ~82.4.212.66 3 days ago
eeeee ~82.4.212.66 3 days ago
tttttt ~82.4.212.66 3 days ago
Stimulus! ~91.158.69.8 3 days ago
jkjlkjlk ~85.242.223.72 3 days ago
dss 😃 ~151.19.66.148 3 days ago
bvv ~186.104.111.159 2 days ago
bvv ~186.104.111.159 2 days ago
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. Donec elementum ligula eu sapien consequat eleifend. Donec nec dolor erat, condimentum sagittis sem. Praesent porttitor porttitor risus, dapibus rutrum ipsum gravida et. Integer lectus nisi, facilisis sit amet eleifend nec, pharetra ut augue. Integer quam nunc, consequat nec egestas ac, volutpat ac nisi. Sed consectetur dignissim dignissim. Donec pretium est sit amet ipsum fringilla feugiat. Aliquam erat volutpat. Maecenas scelerisque, orci sit amet cursus tincidunt, libero nisl eleifend tortor, vitae cursus risus mauris vitae nisi. Cras laoreet ultrices ligula eget tempus. Aenean metus ~78.220.252.143 2 days ago
yay ~80.117.69.230 2 days ago
test ~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
test ~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
asfasfasf ~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
Sdf ~178.121.65.224 2 days ago
Sdf ~178.121.65.224 2 days ago
welllll ~67.198.102.248 2 days ago
pp ~192.157.100.134 2 days ago
pp ~192.157.100.134 2 days ago
thats crazy ~177.74.65.10 2 days ago
hey ~177.74.65.10 2 days ago
hi ~73.186.237.251 2 days ago
Yo, we're testing this. ~72.182.175.30 2 days ago
gh ~5.13.62.0 1 day ago
coucou ~176.151.173.200 1 day ago
coucou ~176.151.173.200 1 day ago
yes ~73.93.130.244 1 day ago
oh ~73.93.130.244 1 day ago
hi ~64.223.217.58 1 day ago
Hello ~92.91.222.67 1 day ago
aloha ~87.221.41.68 about 21 hours ago
test ~87.221.41.68 about 21 hours ago
slow ~87.221.41.68 about 21 hours ago
Asd ~77.233.250.50 about 17 hours ago
Asd ~77.233.250.50 about 17 hours ago
Ping ~77.233.250.50 about 17 hours ago
Very very slow ~77.233.250.50 about 17 hours ago
testing ~85.68.23.8 about 11 hours ago
~115.135.150.93 about 11 hours ago
adsads ~115.135.150.93 about 11 hours ago
test ~186.29.181.161 about 10 hours ago
hello ~186.29.181.161 about 9 hours ago
hello ~186.29.181.161 about 9 hours ago
hello ~186.29.181.161 about 9 hours ago
hi ~186.29.181.161 about 9 hours ago
test ~99.129.219.250 about 7 hours ago
ggg ~189.216.96.138 about 4 hours ago
ggg ~189.216.96.138 about 4 hours ago
little slow ~119.242.226.19 5 minutes ago
dfgdfg ~119.18.3.132 2 months ago
yes ~117.200.15.117 2 months ago
еуые ~45.12.220.253 2 months ago
test ~45.12.220.253 2 months ago
fdfd ~122.163.204.236 2 months ago
zzzzzzz ~187.247.165.13 2 months ago
test ~37.170.76.191 2 months ago
Alocha ~190.74.52.13 2 months ago
~219.59.7.246 2 months ago
qqqq ~181.90.199.13 2 months ago
123 ~181.90.199.13 2 months ago
jnjnlk ~70.181.102.97 2 months ago
212 ~177.97.20.202 2 months ago
Was ~108.2.148.181 2 months ago
Does this work? ~47.186.250.114 2 months ago
yes ~213.77.149.107 2 months ago
great ~190.74.52.13 about 2 months ago
Fast ~47.186.250.114 about 2 months ago
Fast ~47.186.250.114 about 2 months ago
fast ~47.186.250.114 about 2 months ago
fff ~59.153.246.55 about 2 months ago
Hi ~49.156.156.74 about 2 months ago
test ~51.36.17.205 about 2 months ago
yellow test ~75.131.128.66 about 2 months ago
~109.166.138.238 about 2 months ago
23 ~200.194.249.126 about 2 months ago
Hi! ~198.53.11.63 about 2 months ago
sadsa ~24.4.129.182 about 2 months ago
feels a bit sluggish? ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
check out the blue pill, ahem channel ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
Fff ~84.164.226.61 about 2 months ago
Hello ~5.58.22.27 about 2 months ago
ajaiajia ~42.191.57.67 about 2 months ago
yolo ~42.191.57.67 about 2 months ago
lll ~107.13.181.77 about 2 months ago
zxc ~79.49.130.33 about 2 months ago
this is venkat ~117.98.206.82 about 2 months ago
Hm ~83.152.72.118 about 2 months ago
Hi from yellow chat ~72.220.62.60 about 2 months ago
Bsnejs ~182.232.3.101 about 1 month ago
test ~188.162.201.233 about 1 month ago
Bonjour ~37.60.185.178 about 1 month ago
reee ~188.36.21.140 about 1 month ago
test ~165.228.134.50 about 1 month ago
What is up ~142.117.252.31 about 1 month ago
~185.120.124.4 about 1 month ago
test ~173.79.110.238 about 1 month ago
ASD ~139.195.10.248 about 1 month ago
Hola ~189.232.178.92 about 1 month ago
Hi! ~189.232.178.92 about 1 month ago
Somebody is here?? ~189.232.178.92 about 1 month ago
Yellow chat y'all ~129.232.82.221 about 1 month ago
~64.4.72.219 about 1 month ago
test ~209.141.176.240 about 1 month ago
Wow it worked. ~76.8.209.118 about 1 month ago
as ~167.57.190.71 about 1 month ago
~37.47.7.230 about 1 month ago
ytjytj ~37.47.7.230 about 1 month ago
Yopyop ~154.20.191.106 about 1 month ago
forbidden knowledge lies here ~188.155.97.22 about 1 month ago
test ~42.115.19.193 about 1 month ago
test ~42.115.19.193 about 1 month ago
great! ~42.115.19.193 about 1 month ago
Yellow chat. ~24.21.240.190 about 1 month ago
what? ~172.98.86.92 29 days ago
test ~98.202.250.165 29 days ago
Another test ~72.220.62.60 29 days ago
1111 ~101.78.143.74 29 days ago
xxx ~116.70.213.214 29 days ago
hey there ~188.27.130.54 28 days ago
victor? ~188.27.130.54 28 days ago
you ~188.27.130.54 28 days ago
yes ~78.96.150.77 28 days ago
yellow ~109.250.151.85 27 days ago
asd ~82.102.27.204 26 days ago
Yellow ~76.95.49.215 24 days ago
ttt ~175.45.149.50 23 days ago
Yellow man ~184.22.235.58 22 days ago
Tom Tom ~166.170.15.109 22 days ago
test ~89.245.192.70 22 days ago
Why not? ~24.11.105.40 19 days ago
h9ola ~186.144.69.147 19 days ago
hi ~190.111.26.89 19 days ago
TBD ~73.26.97.232 19 days ago
Slow ~65.79.128.224 19 days ago
T ~65.79.128.224 19 days ago
Bleh ~176.138.153.73 19 days ago
test ~74.90.144.208 16 days ago
safas ~103.249.135.157 16 days ago
test ~45.249.40.114 16 days ago
test ~108.31.120.133 15 days ago
asfsf ~194.182.84.64 15 days ago
safasf ~194.182.84.64 15 days ago
blah ~47.187.99.210 14 days ago
fgf ~200.100.103.59 13 days ago
hjk ~178.44.212.58 13 days ago
iugc ~103.146.175.2 12 days ago
iugc ~103.146.175.2 12 days ago
iugc ~103.146.175.2 12 days ago
iugc ~103.146.175.2 12 days ago
~193.36.116.161 11 days ago
asdas ~77.172.44.116 10 days ago
This is test ~108.202.76.26 10 days ago
yuy ~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
yuy ~94.25.170.123 9 days ago
Hey ~39.50.192.130 8 days ago
~27.6.187.57 8 days ago
Hey ~49.36.17.198 8 days ago
asdfasdf ~189.159.1.12 8 days ago
~189.159.1.12 8 days ago
frr ~187.190.178.211 8 days ago
rrr ~187.190.178.211 8 days ago
eee ~187.190.178.211 8 days ago
blue ~86.92.135.175 8 days ago
Yellow is best ~173.70.141.244 7 days ago
fghfgh ~217.149.254.132 6 days ago
asd ~160.79.169.3 6 days ago
sDSda ~66.41.35.55 6 days ago
hi ~92.184.112.127 6 days ago
yes ~217.217.220.10 5 days ago
Hey ~209.141.122.154 5 days ago
Hi ~209.141.122.154 5 days ago
Happy Saturday ~108.68.124.161 4 days ago
Vv ~95.90.203.175 4 days ago
Желтый ~188.164.25.34 3 days ago
Желтый ~188.164.25.34 3 days ago
Blah! ~71.178.202.108 3 days ago
rrrr ~82.4.212.66 3 days ago
r ~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
Hi ~63.234.62.51 2 days ago
hmmm ~67.198.102.248 2 days ago
gdfgdd ~186.29.181.161 1 day ago
fdgdf ~186.29.181.161 1 day ago
ybri ~186.29.181.161 1 day ago
132132 ~115.135.150.93 about 11 hours ago
dfgdg ~119.18.3.132 2 months ago
dfdfd ~122.163.204.236 2 months ago
Hello ~190.74.52.13 2 months ago
~62.57.30.152 2 months ago
zsdsdsdsd ~62.57.30.152 2 months ago
n.,mn ~70.181.102.97 2 months ago
,/ ~177.97.20.202 2 months ago
asdasd ~86.23.76.215 2 months ago
yes ~86.23.76.215 2 months ago
hello ~122.169.151.67 2 months ago
Test ~47.186.250.114 2 months ago
fast ~47.186.250.114 2 months ago
test3 ~47.186.250.114 2 months ago
test4 ~213.77.149.107 2 months ago
888 ~109.195.147.170 about 2 months ago
please write messages that make sense ~190.74.52.13 about 2 months ago
ah ~83.114.63.36 about 2 months ago
lkjlkjlkj ~181.170.70.104 about 2 months ago
test ~3.227.174.240 about 2 months ago
f ~3.227.174.240 about 2 months ago
absolutely, it makes sense. ~49.207.203.213 about 2 months ago
Hi ~49.156.156.74 about 2 months ago
this is blue chat. ~46.1.119.144 about 2 months ago
vcvc ~46.1.119.144 about 2 months ago
TEST ~46.196.78.25 about 2 months ago
TEST ~46.196.78.25 about 2 months ago
test ~51.36.17.205 about 2 months ago
62623 ~200.194.249.126 about 2 months ago
Fantastic teh ~98.148.86.214 about 2 months ago
whoops! Tech! ~98.148.86.214 about 2 months ago
asdsa ~24.4.129.182 about 2 months ago
hey ~99.250.18.205 about 2 months ago
Hiya ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
BLAU BLEU BLUE AZUL ... ~178.113.78.214 about 2 months ago
scroll position test ~95.91.225.158 about 2 months ago
eins ~95.91.225.158 about 2 months ago
Took a while to change between chat channels ~169.0.109.202 about 2 months ago
dddd ~117.98.206.82 about 2 months ago
ha ~5.58.22.27 about 2 months ago
ihnin ~147.253.167.57 about 2 months ago
test ~147.253.167.57 about 2 months ago
aaa ~207.135.140.35 about 2 months ago
eeeyyoo ~46.106.23.147 about 2 months ago
Yaaaashawty ~41.114.243.16 about 2 months ago
Hi from blue chat ~72.220.62.60 about 2 months ago
hhgjhghgjhg ~118.210.77.123 about 2 months ago
Eee ~182.232.3.101 about 1 month ago
ddddddiiiiiidddd ~184.103.28.183 about 1 month ago
bbbb ~188.36.21.140 about 1 month ago
123 ~201.17.222.70 about 1 month ago
test missing? hmm ~173.79.110.238 about 1 month ago
hello ~31.27.6.42 about 1 month ago
Hi!! ~189.232.178.92 about 1 month ago
Is somebody here? ~189.232.178.92 about 1 month ago
hello ~209.141.176.240 about 1 month ago
hii ~50.101.2.166 about 1 month ago
das ~167.57.190.71 about 1 month ago
as ~167.57.190.71 about 1 month ago
test ~154.20.191.106 about 1 month ago
test ~79.114.33.111 about 1 month ago
blue chat is not as popular ~188.155.97.22 about 1 month ago
hola ~190.84.116.205 30 days ago
hejka ~185.209.251.240 30 days ago
test ~98.202.250.165 29 days ago
What up? ~47.187.105.119 28 days ago
ehll ~24.56.25.173 28 days ago
blue ~109.250.151.85 27 days ago
sadasdsadasd ~80.127.99.58 27 days ago
asdsad ~80.127.99.58 27 days ago
s ~89.64.11.216 25 days ago
fff ~177.44.70.21 22 days ago
~177.44.70.21 22 days ago
~177.44.70.21 22 days ago
amaizing ~105.163.165.99 22 days ago
Hey ~71.145.219.23 21 days ago
test ~74.90.144.208 16 days ago
wow ~175.144.182.213 12 days ago
👋 ~81.97.25.40 12 days ago
🦄 ~67.191.144.38 10 days ago
But how does it work? ~173.56.242.28 10 days ago
/.,:lk ~108.202.76.26 10 days ago
asdf ~189.159.1.12 8 days ago
Goodbye ~192.0.230.157 8 days ago
~192.0.230.157 8 days ago
k f nfgv ~176.145.156.242 8 days ago
red ~86.92.135.175 8 days ago
ffvf ~5.228.7.73 7 days ago
hehe ~144.121.100.66 6 days ago
asd ~160.79.169.3 6 days ago
You're wrong. Blue is best. ~73.68.82.48 6 days ago
yes ~81.67.130.92 6 days ago
xsSzdsds ~66.41.35.55 6 days ago
Horrible showcase on mobile ~104.182.207.94 6 days ago
Could be better :) ~181.63.110.176 5 days ago
hey ~94.143.197.176 4 days ago
test chat ~89.216.107.96 4 days ago
more tests ~89.216.107.96 4 days ago
лоло ~202.187.230.188 4 days ago
ljdlfkjvdfmd ~188.186.192.199 4 days ago
Huh? ~71.178.202.108 3 days ago
hello ~201.82.132.126 3 days ago
hello ~201.82.132.126 3 days ago
Hey ~78.220.252.143 2 days ago
why taking so long ~67.198.102.248 2 days ago
gfdfgfd ~186.29.181.161 1 day ago
slow ~119.242.226.19 6 minutes ago

Code (117 LOC)

ERB (41 LOC)
app/views/chats/_demo.html.erb (16 LOC)
<ul class="nav nav-tabs">
<li class="nav-item">
<a data-toggle="tab" data-reflex="click->ChatReflex#set_color" href="#red" class="nav-link <%= "active" if active_chat?(:red) %>">Red Chat</a>
</li>
<li class="nav-item">
<a data-toggle="tab" data-reflex="click->ChatReflex#set_color" href="#yellow" class="nav-link <%= "active" if active_chat?(:yellow) %>">Yellow Chat</a>
</li>
<li class="nav-item">
<a data-toggle="tab" data-reflex="click->ChatReflex#set_color" href="#blue" class="nav-link <%= "active" if active_chat?(:blue) %>">Blue Chat</a>
</li>
</ul>
<div class="tab-content">
<%= render "color", color: "red" %>
<%= render "color", color: "yellow" %>
<%= render "color", color: "blue" %>
</div>
app/views/chats/_color.html.erb (25 LOC)
<div id="<%= color %>" data-color="<%= color %>"
data-controller="chat" data-action="chats:added@document->chat#reload cable-ready:after-morph@document->chat#scroll"
class="<%= css "tab-pane bg-white p-4 border border-top-0", "show active": active_chat?(color) %>">
<div data-target="chat.list" class="bg-light border rounded mb-2 p-3" style="height:400px; max-width:800px; overflow-y:scroll;">
<% @chats.select { |chat| chat[:color] == color }.each do |chat| %>
<% if chat_author? chat %>
<div class="<%= chat_css color %> rounded-lg border my-2 p-1 px-2 text-right w-75 float-right">
<%= chat[:message] %>
<small class="opacity-30 d-block">~me <%= distance_of_time_in_words_to_now Time.parse(chat[:created_at]) %> ago</small>
</div>
<% else %>
<div class="bg-light rounded-lg border my-2 p-1 px-2 text-left w-75 float-left">
<%= chat[:message] %>
<small class="opacity-30 d-block">~<%= chat[:author] %> <%= distance_of_time_in_words_to_now Time.parse(chat[:created_at]) %> ago</small>
</div>
<% end %>
<% end %>
</div>
<form style="max-width:800px;">
<div class="form-group">
<textarea data-target="chat.input" class="form-control border <%= chat_border_css color %>" rows="3" placeholder="Type your message..."></textarea>
</div>
<button data-action="click->chat#post" type="submit" class="btn btn-primary btn-lg">Submit</button>
</form>
</div>
JavaScript (48 LOC)
app/javascript/controllers/chat_controller.js (41 LOC)
import Rails from '@rails/ujs'
import { debounce } from 'lodash-es'
import ApplicationController from './application_controller'
let lastMessageId
const reload = controller => {
controller.stimulate('ChatReflex#reload')
}
const debouncedReload = debounce(reload, 100)
export default class extends ApplicationController {
static targets = ['list', 'input']
connect () {
super.connect()
this.scroll(100)
}
post (event) {
Rails.stopEverything(event)
lastMessageId = Math.random()
this.stimulate(
'ChatReflex#post',
this.element.dataset.color,
this.inputTarget.value,
lastMessageId
)
}
afterPost () {
this.inputTarget.value = ''
this.inputTarget.focus()
this.scroll(1)
}
scroll (delay = 10) {
const lists = document.querySelectorAll('[data-target="chat.list"]')
setTimeout(() => {
lists.forEach(e => (e.scrollTop = e.scrollHeight))
}, delay)
}
reload (event) {
const { messageId } = event.detail
if (messageId === lastMessageId) return
debouncedReload(this)
}
}
app/javascript/channels/chat_channel.js (7 LOC)
import consumer from './consumer'
import CableReady from 'cable_ready'
consumer.subscriptions.create('ChatChannel', {
received (data) {
if (data.cableReady) CableReady.perform(data.operations)
}
})
Ruby (28 LOC)
app/controllers/chats_controller.rb (6 LOC)
class ChatsController < ApplicationController
def show
session[:chat_color] ||= "red"
@chats ||= Rails.cache.read(:chats) || []
end
end
app/reflexes/chat_reflex.rb (22 LOC)
class ChatReflex < ApplicationReflex
include CableReady::Broadcaster
def post(color, message, message_id)
@chats = Rails.cache.read(:chats) || []
@chats.shift while @chats.size > 1000
@chats << {
id: message_id,
color: color,
author: request.remote_ip,
message: message,
created_at: Time.current.iso8601,
}
Rails.cache.write :chats, @chats
cable_ready["chat"].dispatch_event name: "chats:added", detail: {message_id: message_id}
cable_ready.broadcast
end
def set_color
session[:chat_color] = element[:href].delete("#")
end
def reload
end
end